Download complete project material on Determination Of Heavy Metals In Eggshells from chapter one to five
Different samples of eggs from various layer (Agric Chicken, Domestic Chicken, Duck and Quill) were collected from Bakin Dogo central market, these samples were labelled as A,B,C and D respectively, the total concentration of heavy metals (copper, Zinc, lead and iron) were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The result obtained from each samples A,B,C and D revealed that : for Zn A 0.30, B 4.70, C 5.70, and 5.00 respectively. For Pb A 8.50, B 13.00, C 10.10 and D 10.10 respectively. And for Fe A 0.29 B 6.50, C 4.70, and D 6.35 respectively. And Cu A 5.80, B 5.40, C5.80 and D 4.00 respectively. The results shows that all the samples contain heavy metals.
1.1 Definition of Eggshell
Eggs are laid by female animal of many different species including reptiles, amphibians, mammals, bird, and fishes. Eggs have been eaten by human for several thousand years. While the eggshells are the protective cover waste primarily of Calcium or Magnesium Carbonate (Limes) minerals element and protein. The most popular choice of consumption is caviar eggs which consist of a protective (cover) eggshells albumen and yolk. Egg served a food supplements and ingredient due to amount of protein and collagen stored in it, despite the nutritional value of egg, there are some potentials health issues arising from egg quality, storage and individual allergies.
Eggs are highly consumed by human everyday because of its higher nutritional in the body. The disposal of eggshells and hatchery waste was not only a problems for poultry rearing, although it’s the global environmental pollution problem which alleviation in many other countries, where it was an acceptable practice to feed treated eggshells to animals as a sources of calcium and those was a very efficient option for the disposal of eggshells. The calcium and magnesium oxide and the burnt lime could be used as skin grafts, dental implant, angioplasty sleeves cornea repair, plastic surgery and treatment of Osteoporosis (Romanoff & Romanoff, 2002).
1.2 THE EGGSHELLS
The eggshell is an important structure for two reasons firstly: it forms an embryonic chamber for the developing of animals providing protection and a controlled gas exchange medium. Secondly it’s a container for the market egg providing of the content and a unique package for the valuable food (Certer, 1970).
The special structure of the eggshell has been known for over 100 years. The eggshells consist of about 97% calcium carbonate and this is providing to the hen in their diet. However the chemical most be broken down in the digestive system and then re-synkemzed in the shell gland to form the shell, this result in a turn over of blood calcium 10 layers has been research at long, but the key conducted at cornel university in the 1960s showed the necessary for sources with large particles size for example chicken eggshells subsequent research had defined guide line that if correctly followed, will yield reliable and optimum eggshells in market channels as a serious concern (Burley, 1989).
1.3 THE HEAVY METAL IN EGGSHELLS
In commercial egg industry, the eggshells provide a perfect package for an important food item as for the embryo, the shell provide protection from mechanical damage and also reaches the consumers free of bacteria, virus and other pathogen, failure of the shells for any reason compromised the eggs value whether as a hatching eggs of food product. Egg producers have to be aware of those factors because the economic consequence of shells is formed on the egg all of the investment of nutrients has been made and death of the embryo or loss of nutritional value represent potentially a total loss of the former. This review will consider some of the more applied factors affecting the production of eggshells and some of the method used to evaluate it in various situation, it will respect to heavy metals such as Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), lead (Pb) iron (Fe) and many more metals that may be utilized in future improvement (Solomon, 1991).
(SWASV) was used to determined heavy metals such as Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, and many more metals in the eggshells of different variety. Analysis were carried out by the standard addition method using increase in the magnetic of the stripping peak, eggshells were not cleaned before metals analysis sample (0.2g) of each eggshells both were put in beaker and dried under (105oc). The eggshell sample were digested in nitrate acid and then 1.5ml of ultra pure HN03 was added to each sample, the temperature was gradually increased until the sample was completely dissolve with was added to each of them. All the reagent were of analytical grade and all solution were prepared with de-ionized water (Etches, 1987).
1.4 HEAVY METALS USING PERKEN-ELMER OPTIMA
The heavy metals in the dissolved eggshell sample were first determined using a Perkin-Elmer-optima 4300DV KP-OES spectrophotometer, however metals content was too low to give meaningful result. Therefore the determine to the metals were carried out with (A.A.S) Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer using CHI 660B electrochemical analyzer equipped with a BAS cell stand. The working and auxiliary electrode include a hanging mercury drop electrode CHMDE and PT wire and potential were measured, suing Ag/Agcl (3mm KCl) references electrode to the electro chemical cell 1.5ml of the dissolved sample (De-Baedmaeker, et al., 2003).
1.5 NUTRITIONAL USES OF EGG SHELLS
There are various nutritional uses of egg shells include, eggshells as calcium supplement, eggshells as garden fertilizer, eggshells as better testing coffee, eggshells as strengthening organism and cleansing the blood and many more.
1.5.1 EGGSHELL AS CALCIUM SUPPLEMENT
Eggshells are known to be very rich in calcium which can easily wash them only using warm water when boiled with the warm water, it can be used to kill bacterial (Hincke, 2003).
1.5.2 EGGSHELLS AS GARDEN FERTILIZER
Eggshells are rich in calcium and other mineral that help for garden thrive. The eggshells could be crushed into tiny pieces and then sprinkle it into each planting holes before planting any seedling, then sprinkle additional shells around the base of the plant every two weeks (Hunton, 2000).
1.5.3 EGGSHELLS AS BETTER TASTING COFFEE
Some crushed eggshell could be ground to coffee be force brewing it, so as to make its tasteless bitter. When this is done, then the grounded eggshell should be loosed on a compost heap (Hinke, 2003).
1.5.4 EGGSHELLS AS STRENGHT ORGANISIMS AND CLEANSING THE BLOOD
Wash five eggshells, crushed them good and put them into three litters of water, allowed the mixture in the refrigerator for seven days before using it as a drinking water. You can add lemon juice if you want (Mann, 2003).
1.6 MEDICINAL USES OF EGGSHELLS
There are various of medicinal uses of eggshells which include: eggshells as gastric ulcer remedy, eggshells as pest control, eggshells as treat skin irritation, eggshells as nourishing face mask and many more.
1.6.1 EGGSHELLS AS GASTRIC ULCER REMEDY
Some crushed eggshells pick using the tip of the knife, this amount of eggshells will be enough for treating gastric ulcer, mixed the crushed eggshells with two table spoon of lemon juice. When the egg shells are softening, add one decilitre of hot milk. Then consume this mixture two times a day on an empty stomach in the morning and also before bed time in the evening (Scott & Mullerdord, 1971).
1.6.2 EGGSHELLS AS PEST CONTROL
Crushed eggshells and scatter them around your vegetable and flowers to fend off slugs, snails and cutworms. These soft bodies critters don’t like crawling over sharp pieces of shell, the smell of eggs will also deter deer (Solomon, 1991).
1.6.3 EGGSHELLS AS TREAT SKIN IRRITATION
Eggshells are dropped into a small container of apple cider vinegar and let it suck for a couple of days. Then dab the mixture on minor skin or large but dry skin irritation (Solomon, 1991).
1.6.4 EGGSHELLS AS NOURISHING FACE MASK
Pulverize dried eggshells with a mortar and pestle them whisk the powder in with an egg while are used for a healthful skin lightening facial, allow the face mask to dry before rinsing it off (Chowhury et al., 2000).
1.7 ECONOMICAL USES OF EGGSHELLS
There are various economical uses of eggshells which include: eggshells as cat, detergent, eggshell as starter for some seedling, eggshell as side walk chalk and many more (Morales et al., 2002).
1.7.1 EGGSHELLS AS SIDE WALK CHALK
To prepare side work chalk from eggshell, the following will be needed which include: Approximately five empty eggshells, one tea spoon flour, one tea spoon very hot water, food colouring (for coloured chalk). Wash and dry the egg shells, then crush the eggshell into a bowl and grind it until it’s a powder. Make all the process ground. Take out any pieces before going onto the next step. Make flour and hot water in another bowl, them 1 table spoon eggshell powder and mixed into a paste. Add favourite color food coloring (1 to 2 drops for coloured chalk), but if it is white chalks the colorant should not be added. The paste should now be shaped into chalk sticks or process into soap mould for fun shape. If making chalk sticks roll the stick up tightly in a paper let the chalk dry for 3 days (Scolt, 1971).
1.7.2 EGGSHELLS AS CARTE DETERGENT
crushed up eggshells will keep them away, too just scatter shells in the areas that they frequent, and after stepping on those shells, a few times they will move on (Hunton, 1995).
1.7.3 EGGSHELLS AS STARTER FOR SOME SEEDLING
Fill an egg carton with empty 2.5 rinsed eggshells halve and poke a hole in each one of the drainage then, add polting soil and one two seeds to each shell when the seedling are big enough too transplanting outside just crack the shell at the bottom and plant them shell and all (Hincke et al., 2003).
The atomic absorbance spectrophotometer mode is used which is digital with operating mode of both absorbance and concentration. This concentration of the test sample could be read directly.
To determine the heavy metals in different eggshells
– To determine the absorbance of heavy metals in different eggshells at different concentrations.
– To find the relationship of heavy metals composition in different eggshells.
– To compare the hardness of eggshell with their heavy metal composition