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Prevalence of Malaria Parasitaemia in Pregnant Women that Attend Hospitals Within Kaduna Metropolis

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction

Malaria remains the single most important infective causing mobility and mortality in the world and is second only to mycoloceterium tuberculosis as the single most important infection agent (Green wood, 2010). It is of the most impediments to progress in Africa, with 90% of the global malaria deaths occurring in this continent (Bulter, 1997). It is responsibly for one in four deaths below the age of 5years and could lead to miscarriage most times of the early stage of pregnancy (Bulter, 1997). In the endemic countries of Africa, children under the age of five and pregnant women been the brunt of the burden of malaria diseases, this is because they have lower immunity to the disease compared to other people in the same environment (Rainiet al., 2004).

In certain locations, the malaria situation is deteriorating as a result of environmental changes, including global warming, civil disturbances, traveling and increasing drug resistance (Greenwood, 2002). According to world health Organization, malaria ranks 7th in the rank of leading selected causes of mortality with fatality rank put at 1.5 to 2.7 million annually while it come second among the leading selected cause of morbidity with about 300 to 500 million people reporting to hospital due to the infection (WHO, 2002).

Beyond the impact of malaria on children and pregnant women, it affects the general population. 100% of the total population of Nigeria is at risk of malaria and at least 50% of the total population suffers from at least one episodes of malaria each year (WHO, 2010), about 51% cases and deaths in Nigeria occur in rural villages away from effective diagnostic or treatment facilities (WHO, 2010). Malaria cases and deaths have been increasing in the country, mainly due to injudicious use of antimalarial drugs, delayed health seeking and reliances on the clinical judgment without laboratory confirmation in most of the peripheral health facilities (Vander et al, 2005).

Despite evidence of the cost effectiveness of improving treatment access and compliance (Goodman et al, 1999), most victims of malaria still die because of lack of health care close to their homes or because their condition is not diagnosed by health workers (WHO, 2010). Early diagnosis and prompt effective treatment of malaria illness has been a cornerstone of malarial control (Vander et al., 2005), although volunteer health workers in rural areas have practiced it with some success (Pagnmi, 2011), The reduction of morbidity and the interruption of parasite, rapid and practical method of diagnosis. The delivery of treatment require an accurate, rapid and practical method of diagnosis.

The delivery of treatment in rural area in Nigeria is complicated by the centralized nature of microscopy services (Alaba, 2008). Over the past few years, developments in rapid field diagnostic techniques based on the demonstration of parasites for improved of centralized diagnostic service (Singh et al., 2011).

Maternal mortality is twice in pregnant malaria women than among non-pregnant patients with severe malaria (Brain, 1998). Anaemia is the most common symptoms of malarial in pregnancy and usually develop during the second trimester (Brain, 1998).   Cerebral malaria rare in adults except during pregnancy and is responsible for many maternal malaria deaths (Macleod, 2008).

Severe falciparum malaria may cause deformities in the genital tract to make conception impossible or if conception does occur, it may prevent normal implantation and development of the placenta (Burrow et al., 2008). Although so much work have been published on the prevalence of malaria in major cities of Nigeria, this work was therefore aimed to determine the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women attending hospital within Kaduna metropolis.

1.1  STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

  • Malaria remains the single most important causing morbidity and mortality in the world and is second only to mycobacterium tuberculosis as the single most important infection agent (Green wood, 2010).
  • It is of the most impediments to progress in Africa, with 90% the global malaria deaths occurring in this continent (Bulter, 1997).
  • It is responsible for one in four deaths the age of 5years and could lead to miscarriage most times at the early stage of pregnancy (Bulter, 1997).

1.2   JUSTIFICATION

Malaria during pregnancy continues to be a major health problem in endemic countries with clinical consequences including death of both mother and child (Desai et al, 2007).

In the control of malaria during pregnancy, the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommended use of treated bed nets, intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy and effective case management of treatment of malaria. Despite all these efforts malaria in pregnancy is still increasing being reported in endemic countries such as Nigeria; this study was aimed to determine the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women attending hospital within Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna State in Nigeria.

1.3        OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

To determine the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in pregnant women that attend hospitals within Kaduna metropolis.

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