The amount of time been wasted on our various road in Nigeria is a source of problem to the three of government in Nigeria and her citizens. The Nigerian government is no longer capable of effectively handling the situation of the road traffic control management. The traffic control system is a system that uses light controller mechanism in an organized way to perform a varying number of functions.
The traffic control will be implemented using logical gates, which serves as block of hardware to provide logical function. Also a timer that produces light signals for either movement or stoppage of vehicles via the light emitting diode will be implemented. However, it is hoped that at the end of this work and its implantation, some of the inhibiting problem of the traffic control like: waste of time, unavoidable road accident and other factors will be reduced. The frontend of the system will be implemented in Visual Basic (version 6.0) and the backend will be in Microsoft Access (Version 2007)
Road traffic can be defined as the movement of people and vehicles along the road and street. Computerized Road Traffic control system and management is complete, integrated and development firm which is designed specifically for road users to provide an orderly movement or stoppage of vehicles or people on each road.
The traffic signal system is probably the most important kind of transportation facility in operation today, considering the perspectives of both safety and efficiency.
Two-third of all miles driven each year in Nigeria are on roadways controlled by traffic signals. In some urban areas, signals at busy intersections control the movement of more than 50,000 user per day. The signal system also has a great impact on energy and environment. The more time a vehicle stops, the larger the level of pollutant that it emits. And twenty percent of the oil used by automobiles traveling along urban arterials is consumed while waiting at a red light at a signalized intersection.
A traffic signals system at its core has two major tasks: move as many users through the intersection as possible doing this with little conflict between these users as possible. The first task relates to efficiency and capacity while the second relates to safety. Both tasks are performed by first clearly defining which group of users has the right of way at a given time and second by determining how long the group has the right of the way.
Furthermore, it can be defined as the organized set of ideas or theory that controls the traffic light with the aid of diode signals. The system makes use of traffic light which is a signal that controls the traffic on a road of many junctions by means of Red, Orange and Green light indicators that shows when to Stop, Get Ready and to GO Respectively.
PURPOSE OF STUDY
This project is aimed at proposing to the government by providing traffic control light indication that will aid free vehicle movement along the roads in the country.
The objectives of the study are as follows;
- To reduce the rate of concurrent accident on the main roads.
- To reduce loss of man-power-hour on the roads.
- To interrupt heavy traffic at specific interval to permit both non-vehicular and pedestrian to cross the road.
- To reduce excessive delay of vehicles and travel time.
- To facilitate the orderly, effective delay of vehicle and travel time flow of traffic.
- To reduce and optimize traffic congestion on the road.
- To providing for a continuous movement of traffic under a favorable condition.
The plight faced by most urban centers of developed countries such as Nigeria is enormous. One of such problems which are general populace experience on a daily basis is in the area of intra-urban mobility.
The road traffic congestion caused by numerous traffic generations such as the motorized, the non-motorized vehicles and the pedestrian constitute one of the basic problems on the road along the NEPA Roundabout junction.
According to Flow Dean (1972) asserted that “the key to good design involves the segregation of traffic which involves the separation of pedestrians from motorized vehicle and also the non-motorized vehicles and other types of vehicles from one another.
Adedimola (1977) in his study of the traffic status in different state categorized factors that contribute to the traffic pandemonium as vehicle factors, road factors, social and economic factors and hence recommended the improvement of the existing road or constructing new ones.
Hobbs (1979) believed that traffic is not usually generated due to movement of vehicles alone their route but also due to the setting of one business transaction that lead to traffic congestion, when certain facilities are not put in place.
Thadeo C. Ntambala1 (1979) said that road traffic is a ready-to-go package which does not need huge investment, and mostly uses existing infrastructure. Some rules might need to be adjusted to make it work, for example, changing the working hours for some localities.
Jensen (1991) has observed that reducing speed limits reduces speed by at least about one quarter of the speed limit reduction.
However, Orioke, Y. M (1999) in his study of traffic flow in Ibadan metropolis identified seven factors of traffic flow congestion as follows;
- The traffic warden and the police
- Lack of effective communication system
iii. Lack of enforcement of road discipline
- Inadequacy of road network terminals facilities
- Increase in traffic generating factor
- Numerous vehicles on the road due to boom in the country’s economy
vii. Lack of accommodation by the road user for one another
Police enforcement of speed limits has been a primary tool to reduce speeds, but it is a technique with long-recognized limitations. The approach operates through education, to inform and educates drivers that slower speeds are appropriate and reasonable through enforcement, to increase the perceived negative consequences of driving fast.
This entails the various method employed to gather information and to design the system. Care was really taken to study the way traffic control system perform it operations. Data were collected from the Nigerian Police Force (NPF), Federal Road Safety Corps and Kaduna North Local Government Traffic Warden to build the new system. The new system is design to visualize and stimulate how traffic control system is to be implemented with the use of computerization. The various method used are Direct Observation of the road networks, Reading of Journals and interview with the officers of Kaduna State Traffic Management Authority (KSTMA).
METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION
Data collection is defined as the ongoing systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of health data necessary for designing, implementing & evaluating information.
- DIRECT OBSERVATION OF ROAD NETWORK
This is one of the methods of fact collection where the researcher went to various junctions to observe the workers on how they go about their job. Periodic observation (observation at predetermined time) was made and this type of observation is known as system observation. In both observations adequate concentration was given to discover what interviewee was not able to make clear to the researcher.
- WEBSITE VISITS
This is the process of logging or visiting website that enables the user to find for desired information’s that is stored on the web server, assessable via a network such as the Internet or a private local area network through an internet address known as a Uniform resource locator.
- READING OF DOCUMENTED MATERIALS
This is a mode of fact finding or collection that involves examination of document used by the road management agencies in guiding the road users on how to use their vehicles on the road network effectively & efficiently without causing any congestion or accident along the roads.
- INTERVIEW OF THE OFFICERS OF ROAD SERVICE CORPS
This is a mode of collecting facts through the officer’s face to face while on their duties. To make this method successful, the following techniques were applied by the interviewer.
- Planning how to approach the interviewee so as not to create inconvenience for him.
- Differentiation between an opinion and fact was made.
- Using of Jargons that the interviewee understood.
- Avoid difficult questions.
- Been tactical
SYSTEM MODELING: The system modeling is design using a model called The Unified Modeling Language; (UML) is a graphical language for visualizing, specifying and constructing the artifacts of a software intensive system. The Unified Modeling Language offers a standard way to write a system’s blueprints, including conceptual things such as system functions, programming language statements, database schemas, and reusable software components.
This project work has shown that the benefits derived in using computer for simulation of various processes, among which are the effectiveness and the efficiency of the new system. The logic on which the traffic control system is based on has been supplied through the keyboard at design time. Some of the input objects used to design the project forms are timer, images, text boxes, and a label and command buttons. The input methods in the program are: – Keyboard and Mouse, the input designs are shown below;
Main Menu of The Input Design Description
This program when run or executed visualizes a form indicating the welcome page with animation which will refer the user to the program with the pictorial view of the main road along Nepa Roundabout, Kaduna.
The following are the procedure for the input design process;
OPERATIONS: – This has to do with powering the system & allow it to boot respectively
CREDITS: – This displays the project title, developer and other necessary information.
START: – This begins the stimulation process. The vehicle starts moving according to the direction of their destinations while the traffic lights control vertical, horizontal and cross movements.
STOP: – This terminates the simulation process and returns all vehicles back to their initial positions.
EXIT: – When clicked will end the application and may take user back to the window environment.
Program design process; after the input design process the program is run in a visual basic 6.0 or more environment for the traffic control system to perform it operation as a result of its aim to meet up with the conditions and demands of the development of the system, the process controller computes the optimal time needed for vehicle cycles on different lanes of traffic. Thus the controller assumes that the duration of the next cycle will be same as other previous cycles.
The output program generates report which display how the traffic functions. After the simulation process the user could picture how real the system will look based on vehicle movement on the road. Hence, the output generated simply display how the vehicles will move along the road without causing accident through the procedure of the light emitting signals which are green, yellow and red.