Saturday, 20 May 2017

Impact Of Government Policy On The Entrepreneural Development Through NAPEP and NDE


Impact Of Government Policy On The Entrepreneural Development Through NAPEPough


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Poverty and unemployment represent the biggest challenges to government in Nigeria. Unemployment rate continue to rise alarmingly, poverty has economic, social and political ramifications. Basically, Poverty has been conceptualized into lack of access to basic needs/goods, lack of or impaired access to productive resources, lack of job opportunities e.t.c (Ameashi, 2006).

The level of poverty since the implementation of SAP in the 1980s has tremendously increased [UNDP Nigeria, 1998; FOS, 1999; World Bank,1999]. The poverty profile has shown that poverty increased from 28.1% in 1980 to 43.6% in 1985 but declined to 42.7% in 1992 and rose again to 65.6% in 1996.since 1990, the country has been classified as a poor nation (Ukpong 1996).


In recent years, there has been a semblance of continuity of liberal tradition in Nigeria;    attitudes towards the system of welfare that supports the poor are rooted in our different cultural settings. The normative  tradition  approach  to  liberalism  in  the  Nigerian  society. function to promote social cohesion, solidarity and citizenship. The duty to share among Nigerians in our diversity is intuitive. This duty rests on the consideration of human worth.

 
In this context, we reason that others have human souls as we do and so we always choose to be indifferent to the needs of others (FEAP, 2001). Apparently, Nigerians always choose to care for others. This duty comes from a sympathetic concern that others be able to make life. In mitigation, however, it has, over time, introduced several macro-economic measures and initiations to address unemployment questions and also  promoting entrepreneurship in the country. There was a structural adjustment programme (SAP) in 1986, which preached the liberalized economic approach, Directorate of food, roads and rural infrastructure (DFFRI), which was devoted to rural infrastructural projects and more recently, the national poverty eradication program (NAPEP) but of more relevance to the youth were such initiatives as the national Directorate of employment (NDE) programs, which targeted skills development and job creation among the youths.


Thus the difference between NAPEP and poverty reduction agencies is that it is not a sector project implementation agency but a co-ordination  facility  that  ensures  that  core  poverty  eradication ministries are effective. It would only intervene when necessary, under its secondary mandate which gives it the right to provide complementary assistance to the implementing ministries and Parastatals nationwide. The importance of both small and large enterprise growth and, more broadly, of sustainable private sector development and expansion as principal sources of economic growth and employment cannot be overstated. Economic growth is fueled, first and foremost, by the creativity and hard work of entrepreneurs and workers.
Driven by the quest for profit, private sector enterprises innovate, invest and generate employment and wage income. They typically represent not only a majority of the total stock of enterprises but also a significant proportion of the national production system. They also are largely responsible for the vitality of local markets and make a major contribution to the improvement of living standard. The promotion of sustainable entrepreneur activity both large and small and of the national private sectors that contain them, is a broad and wide ranging subject, because entrepreneur takes many forms, not just in terms of size, sector and spatial dimension but also in terms of how an entrepreneur is managed and governed and its legal status and operational objectives”.
This study has been designed to bridge this gap in literature. The broad aim of this study is to theoretically and empirically evaluate the impact of government policy on entrepreneurial development in Nigeria.


1.1 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH  PROBLEM
It is better to try and fall than to fail to try. In innovation, ideas do not invest itself, profit do not made by themselves, risk is not taken itself, where this activities and behavior are bedded in a in a business environment, entrepreneurship is present and when it does not occur it is absent. People who are part of the terminates of entrepreneurship lack of technical development has also being identified as a hindrance to entrepreneurship development in the developing countries.
There have been government attempts at poverty alleviation and reduction of which the Poverty Alleviation Programme (PAP) and its successor, the National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP), are the most recent ones. The rationale behind the conception and eventual establishment of the NAPEP stemmed from the failure of the successive colonial and post-colonial poverty alleviation programmes to achieve the targets.

The
NAPEP was therefore established in 2001, by the Obasanjo civilian administration, as a corrective and alternative poverty alleviation programme, which was aimed essentially at enhancing the living conditions of the Nigeria populace, especially the poor and unemployed (Iwuoha and Obi, 2012).
The stakeholders recognized that certain fundamental reasons were responsible for the inadequacy of anti-poverty measures over the years, which included inadequate involvement of stakeholders, poor management and implementation arrangements among others. The mandate of NAPEP is to monitor and coordinate all poverty eradication efforts in order to harmonize and ensure better delivery, maximum impact, and effective utilization of available resources (Okoye and Onyukwu, 2007).

It has been known in Nigeria that every government embarks on one form of poverty reduction strategy or the other in promoting entrepreneur activities. However, what has remained unanswered is the extent to which these programme have impacted on business or the entrepreneurs. Today, poverty has  been  addressed  as  a global problem, especially in places like Africa, Asia, and Latin America. On the average 45-50 percent of sub-Saharan Americans live below the poverty line. In Nigeria, about 43% of the population was living below the poverty line of N305 a year in 1985 prices.


To
this effect, the United Nations declared 1996 the international year of eradication of poverty and 1997-2006 a decade of poverty eradication. So many times on assumption of office in 1999, president Obasanjo indicated that the poverty situation in which over 60% of Nigerians live below the poverty line, requires more effort to prevent it from getting worse. All these resulted to the introduction of NAPEP in Nigeria in the year 2001. Recently, studied in (OECD; 2000) on poverty alleviation and its agencies as well as programs indicate that considerable gap exist between the target objectives and achievements.
Despite all the efforts being made, poverty has still been in an increasing rate in the country, efforts of various government policies are ineffective and therefore not much has been done to actualize the benefits. Thus, the alleviation of poverty in Nigeria is not an intractable problem. This problem is first and foremost a political and ideological challenge requiring a recruitment effort for entrepreneur sustainability (ALIYU; 2001). Also, the lack of continuity in the programs from one administration to the other in one of the problems in the development of entrepreneurship. This study thus, attempts to examine the impact of government policy on entrepreneurial performance.

1.2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions are intended to be answered at the end of this research work:
         I.     To what extent does government policy through NAPEP/ NDE affect the turnover and profitability of entrepreneurial?
      II.     To what extent do government agencies enhance rural and small scale capital and indigenous industries?
   III.     To what extent has government provided facilities to support small scale business?
   IV.     To what extent does the government agencies promote entreneurship in Nigeria?

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The study is aimed at achieving the following objectives:
i.        To determine the extent to which government policy through NAPEP/ NDE enhance turnover and profitability of entrepreneurial
ii.      To identify the credit facilities available for entrepreneurship business project.
iii.    To analyses the facilities attraction of small scale capital and technical know how
iv.    To examine the extent government agencies promote entreneurship in Nigeria

1.4      HYPOTHESIS
Hypothesis One
Ho: Government policy through NAPEP/NDE does not influence the turnover and profitability of entrepreneurial


Hypothesis Two
Ho: There are no facilities provided to support small scale capital and technical know how by government agencies.
Hypothesis Three
Ho: Government agencies does not promote entrepreneurship in Nigeria

1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study seeks to examine the impact of government policies on entrepreneurial development in Ilorin metropolis. It is aimed at stating the function of government agencies to an entrepreneurship development by examining the roles of National Directorate of Employment (NDE), NAPEB and other agencies in poverty alleviation.  It equally tried to verify the reliability and effectiveness of the function towards the growth and development of entrepreneurship activities by interviewing some private business owner.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Most studies have paid much attention to the support rendered by the government agencies to self employment by looking into various kinds of support to self employment and problems encountered by the agencies.

However, the study was specially conducted to identify the roles of government in entrepreneurial development.

This study will contribute to existing body of knowledge on the subject matter by showing the relationship between marketing strategy and performance. As such it will be a good reference material to student, scholars and the general public.


The study would also be beneficial to various entrepreneurs, by way of improving their knowledge towards government roles on entrepreneurship especially as they utilize the finding of the study. The study will also serve as a basic for strategy formulation to investors in area of business development. 


The research will also be beneficial to students, member of the public and individual who may wish to undertake their own research as it be a springboard and a basic for further study.


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