Sunday, 2 April 2017

Construction Of Air Controlled Temperature Switch



Abstract
This project work present the construction of air controlled temperature switch using the filament of an incandescent bulb as the sensing part of the circuit and blown air as the material. When there is airflow, the resistance drops, because the moving air will remove some heat generated in the filament. This variation in the filament will produce variation of voltage across the filament. Those variations will be picked up by the OP AMP which will stimulate rotation of the DC FAN in its output.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
CONTENTS                                                                                                                  
Declaration                                                                                                                              
Approval                                                                                                                                 
Dedication                                                                                                                              
Acknowledgements                                                                                                                
Table of Contents                                                                                                                  
List of Figures                                                                                                                         
List of Tables                                                                                                                          
Abstract     
                                                                                                                             
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of Study                                                                                                  
1.2 Statement of Problem                                                                                                  
1.3 Aim and Objectives                                                                                                      
1.4 Motivation                                                                                                                   
1.5 Methodology                                                                                                               
1.6 Limitations                                                                                                                   
1.7 Outline of Report                                                                                                          

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction                                                                                                                  
2.2 Review of Related Works                                                                                            
2.3 Present Research Work                                                                                                 
2.4 Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD)                                                                      
2.5 Construction of Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD)                                             
2.6 Air Controlled Temperature Switch Circuit Operation                                                
2.7 Application of Air Controlled Temperature Switch                                                     

CHAPTER THREE: CONSTRUCTION
3.1 Introduction                                                                                                                
3.2 Components Selection                                                                                                
3.2.1Transistors                                                                                                                   
3.2.2Voltage comparator                                                                                                    
3.3 Construction Procedures                                                                                             
3.4 Packaging                                                                                                                    

CHAPTER FOUR: TESTING AND RESULT
4.1 Introduction                                                                                                                  
4.2 System Testing and Integration                                                                                    
4.3 Result                                
                                                                                            
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Conclusion                                                                                                                  
5.2 Recommendations              
                                                                                         
REFERENCES                                                                                                                  
APPENDIX I: Circuit Diagram of Air Control Temperature Switch                                              
APPENDIX II: Bill of Engineering Measurement and Evaluation                                      

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1              Background of the Study
 Explicit air control temperature switch is essential in many applications. High power density electronics are liable and self-destruct when cooling fan failures go unnoticed. Heating and air-conditioning systems often incorporate multipoint monitoring of ventilation-duct flow. Clean room air handling systems with undetected dirty blocked air-filters can ruin process yield. Laboratory fume hoods can contain volatile solvents or toxic reagents making adequate air turn-over critical to safety. In these and similar scenarios, the consequences of undetected airflow interruption can range from the merely expensive to the frankly dangerous. Therefore it becomes necessary to use some reliable means of air controlled temperature switch. The design for detecting airflow can give visual measurement; it can be also used to check whether there is airflow in a given space.

Airflow measuring device is a device used to detect the presence of air with regards to the amount needed for human survival in an area. This device is necessary in many applications or system where it is essential to detect the presence of air flow. The earliest air flow measuring systems involved the injection of light tracer into air current, hand held mechanical anemometers. The latter are like small winds mills, with the wind speed being determined from their rate of rotations. In modern days, air flow detection is needed in engine to get an estimate about the amount of fuel to be added to engine. For high power density electronic devices such as microprocessors, we need air flow detection to ensure that there is enough airflow to cool the devices and prevent them from getting over heated.

Another good reason why we need airflow measuring device for measurement and detection of air is in military operations where soldiers are to be in a hideout for long time (say in a pit or well) just as in the times of Roman soldiers as led by Agricola, this equipment will be used to determine if the hideouts will be ok for the soldiers there to survive. As recorded by Agricola, Pliny (AD 23 to 79), a Roman statesman and soldier, who was also a one-time governor of Britain, described how in Roman times, gases dangerous to human sometimes occurred in pit and wells. He also describes how they were detected by observing the behavior of a dog or lighted candle when lowered down the shaft. This was probably in response to the fact that the death of the dog or the extinguishing of the naked flame of a candle indicated that there was no air flow in the pit, as well as the presence of dangerous gases which were harmful to humans and could cause human to suffocate.
Again, on medical ground, say in an operating theater where airflow is not needed during the operation of a patient, the airflow measuring equipment can also be used to determine if there is airflow or not in the theatre room.

1.2   Statement of Problem
It was found that in the past people die in some areas as a result of not having sufficient air to survive such as miners whom mostly die in the pit out of suffocation, people who have to be in a hideout for a long period of time like the soldiers, in an area that is not well ventilated unknown to them. Apart from people dying out of suffocation, some patients do die in the theater room as a result of presence of air. But with a means of detecting the presence of adequate flow of air, either of this will not happen.  

During the time of Agricola, a Roman statesman and a soldier, the method used then for detecting and measuring the amount of airflow enough for human survival was time consuming, which was throwing a dog into a pit or lowering a lamp into pit. Developments came up and there were lots of many other methods used as technology advanced like wind vane, and anemometers. 
In most recent times, with great improvements and lots of research works in technology, it was discovered that with a simple circuit, a device can be built which will be used to detect and measure the amount of airflow in an area that is not time consuming and animals need not be used again, which is what I am also improving on.

1.3   Aim and objectives
The aim of this project is to produce a device, air controlled temperature switch that will show the presence of air moving in a given space or in our environment. The objectives are stated as follows:
(i)     One of the objectives of this project is to construct an air flow sensor. This sensor       will be used to detect the presence of air within an enclosed space.
(ii)    Air controlled temperature switch is used to the detection of the flow of air.
(iii)   It is also used for visual indication of the rate of air flow
1.4              Motivation
To make air flow condition system in a high end data center using a simple energy balance is no longer adequate i.e. summing up the maximum power dissipation from the racks and sizing the sensible air conditioning capacity will not be enough. Moreover, the data design cannot really understand distribution of air. The fluid machines and heat transfer process inside the data center must be understood. To this end, it is necessary to model the air flow and temperature.
1.5  Methodology
The data collected for this project will be obtained from consultation of various textbook and websites. There are several acceptable operation standards that are created and maintained by the electrical and electronic engineers (I.E.E) that guides the construction of air controlled temperature switch.

1.1  Limitations
Since filament of incandescent bulb is used as a sensing element, if not handle gentle can easily get damage.
Also resistance temperature detector used is expensive are easily affected by shock and vibration.
1.2  Outline Of Report


This project is arranged into five chapters. Chapter one gives the introduction of the project. Chapter two reviews the different characteristics of the components used and the literatures. Chapter three gives construction and packaging of the project. Chapter four gives detail about testing and packaging of the project and chapter five entails the conclusion and recommendation of the report

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