Wednesday, 22 March 2017

Water Quality Analysis On Water Obtained From Randomly Selected Hand Dug Wells and Boreholes In Nigeria


CHAPTER ONE
1.0     INTRODUCTION
1.1     BACKGROUND OF STUDY
According to WHO (2006), about 1.1 billion people lack access to improved drinking water supply. In most cities, towns and villages in Nigeria, valuable man-hours are spent on seeking and fetching water, often of doubt quality from distant sources (Efe, 2005). Romi new extension is a community inChikun local government Area of  Kaduna State, Nigeria.
The settlement which evolved around the year 2000 after the religious riot in Kaduna, is located around industrial dumpsite. Poor sanitary habits and lack of enforcement of environmental Sanitationlaws had also contributed immensely to the pollution of water sources in this area. Pollutants in groundwater can be from various sources mainly municipal (i.e. leakages from liquid waste and solid waste from land fill), industrial (i.e. liquid waste tanks and pipeline leakages, oil field and brines) and agricultural sources (i.e. irrigation return flow which are sometimes saline). These problems of acute water supply have resulted in the rapid increase in hand dug wells and boreholes with some located within the proximity of soak away and pit latrines.

The quality of groundwater resource depends on the management of’ human waste as well as the natural physio-chemical characteristics of’ the catchments areas (Efeet al., 2005 Saha and Baba, 2004). Also, depending on the geology of an area. Underground waters are typically rich in dissolved solids especially carbonates and sulphates, calcium and magnesium. Other ions may also he present including chlorides and bicarbonates (Wikipedia, 2010). Hence, it is necessary to obtain physio-chemical characteristics of the groundwater so as to compare and monitor water quality and to determine the type of treatment that may be required before use.

Generally, borehole water is considered to have better microbial quality than that of a hand dug well water, because borehole water is from deep aquifer while hand dug well water is from shallow aquifers which makes it more susceptible to microbial pollution (Linsley and Frazini 1979).

         1.2           STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The ground water quality within Romi new extension, Kaduna state is of major concern. This is because Romi new extension is located near an urban solid waste dump site for coca-cola bottling company and gas & petrochemical company.Residents of the area complained of the presence of oily foamy substances in the wells.

Although groundwater sources are being increasingly used as drinking water yet, testing to see whether the water is of good quality is almost non-existent.Also, it is true that soils generally Function to reduce the effect of microorganisms by a simple filtration mechanism, especially larger bacterial and protozoa, pollution of groundwater by micro-organisms, especially those located near septic tanks or landfills significantly do occur.
          
          1.3     AIM OF THE STUDY
          The Aim of this study is to carry out water quality analysis on water samples
          obtained from randomly selected hand dug wells and boreholes in Romi new
          extension Kaduna state
           
          OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objective of the study is to ascertain the following:
i)  The level of some physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters present such as pH, BOD, DO, TDS, TSS, Fe, NO3, Cu, Zn, and Pb in the study area.
ii)  The level of suitability of the different sources to WHO standards for drinking water quality.


         1.4     SCOPE OF THE STUDY 
The scope of this research work covers water quality analysis of water samples obtained from eight randomly selected hand dug wells and boreholes  inRomi new extension  Kaduna south, Kaduna state.

         1.5       LIMITATIONS
Usually, the community has numerous hand dug wells and boreholes which make this research work restricted to the randomly selected boreholes and hand dug wells to represent the study area. This choice is due to the financial constraint that will be experience in carrying out analysis of water sample gotten from the different sources for the whole city. The research work is also limited to laboratory analysis carried out on water samples to obtain results.
          
         1.6       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The importance of this study is to identify the groundwater quality conditions from various sources in Romi new extension. The major activity is to provide data and information on the level of physical properties, Chemical properties and bacteriological properties of hand dug wells and boreholes’ water samples in the Romi new extension Kaduna south, Kaduna State. The result obtained shall be compared with WHO standard with the view to ascertain the suitability for drinking.

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