The results obtained from the research has shown that as regarding the particle sizes in the soil, the values obtained from the sieve analysis from tp1 of 0.5m, tp1 of 1m, tp2 of 0.,5m and tp2 of 1m were obtained to be recorded to be 76.38%, 71.82%, 75.48% and 71.58% and the weight of dry sample before washing was 500g. From the calculated and graphical data it can be determined that the soil sample is a silt and clay content. For all samples tested their specific gravity (GS) ranges within 2.60 – 2.90 value; an indication that the ratio adopted for grading (70%-30%) has little influence on the bulk density (soil sample.)
Introduction for the construction of arch at the civil engineering entrance.
Every resistance structure, just like any other material object has a shape but when we speak at arch we can say that shape itself is the structure in this quality at the arch, which is a structure that resist due to it shape lies it great advantage as well as its biggest inconvenience, since in order to be able to function as an arch has to be completed.
Therefore all partial structure that may arise during the construction of the arch has little to do with the final structure. It is this fact that the difficulty and the cost of construction at large arch stem form.
Throughout history, same construction produces has been used in steel and reinforce concrete column and leaving aside are exceptions, all these procedure were first used in steel column and then later apply to the concrete ones. This is due to the fact that in the first place, steel arch began to be one century earlier than concrete ones, and secondary, steel arch are lighter, which make their construction easier and leave more room for innovation is arches, in other types of arches.
1.1 THESE ARE TWO POSSIBLE SYSTEM OF PRODUCTION
a. The use of an auxiliary structure that supports the arch until it is finished. This system includes both centering.
b. Building the arch by means of partials structure using difference resistance structures, until close it at the keystone which is the arch begin to function. The partial structure that has been most offers, both for the construction at large steel arch for these made off concrete is the free cantilever construction. There two semi arches unclosing them at the key store.
1.2 AIMS OF THE STUDY
The main aim and objectives of the project is to design and construct an arch to the civil engineering department entrance at Kaduna polytechnic. This being more beauty and serves as sign of victory.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
To achieve the above stated aim, the following objectives were considered:-
i. To construct an arch in the entrance of the civil engineering department.
ii. To determine the geotechnical properties of the soil for construction design of arch.
iii. To make sure the appropriate tests were carried out in the laboratory.
iv. Test Modern construction materials for aesthetics.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significant at this project is to design and construct an arch to department that will show the skill and knowledge acquired during the curse of the programs in civil department.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
After the architectural drawing, setting out will be carried out using both 3.4.5 and builder square method of setting out during excavation disturbed and undisturbed samples will be collected at a depth of 0.5 and 1m depth for both column trench excavated, these samples will be taken to the lab or touring for the following test:
· Direct shear box test
· Sieve analysis (wet)
· Atterberg’s limit test
· B.S compaction test
· Specific gravity test
· Consolidation test
These tests will be carried out in other to accumulate be parameters necessary for the structural design of the structure.
After the design and size of reinforcement to the used will be tasted to check their conformity to the required standard and finally clearing the course of construction concrete cubes be casted to determine their compressive strength
1.6 PROJECT REPORT ORGANIZATION
The organization of the project report is well drawn and vast ion it’s coverage. It covers all the activities encounter during the research design and construction work.
The first chapter is the introductory chapter, this cover the background, project objectives project justification, and scope of the project chapter two present literature reviews.
Chapter three covers the system analysis and design methodology in detail. Chapter four present the system implementation entails the circuit diagram with necessary calculation, involve in the design procedure.
Chapter five is emphasis on conclusion, problem encountered during the project design construction recommendations and for further improvement.
Ref; www.google.com (construction of arch) page 22:33
1.7 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Embarking on a life project and making use of the knowledge achieved academically. Making research on construction material and the types of materials for different projects. Execution of the project that can be very useful to students (academically) and will be of great importance to generations to come and department of civil engineering as a whole. Setting a good legacy for the coming generations and encouraging them to embark on such project.
The research of the work (construction of an arch in civil engineering department) is limited to the cost or money involved for the construction.