Sunday, 19 March 2017

Susceptibility Pattern Of Bacteria Isolated From Burn Patients Attending Hospital In Nigeria

Susceptibility Pattern Of Bacteria Isolated From Burn Patients Attending  Hospital In Nigeria project topics and materials




ABSTRACT

Infection is an important cause of mortality in burns and as such susceptibility pattern of some commonly used antibiotics against bacteria isolated from burn patients was carried out to determine the bacterial isolate that are resistant to antibiotics. Swab samples were collected form Yusuf Dantosho Memorial Hospital Tudun Wada, Kaduna these samples were cultured and incubated for 24-48hrs at 370C, the result obtained indicates the presence of staphylococcus aureus Escherichia coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa. In the study commonly used antibiotics such as Gentamycin Ciproftloxacin and Erythromycin showed significant activity against S. aureus. While staphylococcus aureus showed resistance to Streptomycin and Amoxicillin. 

CHAPTER ONE


1.0  INTRODUCTION

Burns are damage to the skin by a variety of non – mechanical sources including chemicals, electricity, heat, sunlight, nuclear radiation (Gottrup et al., 2005) . Burns are the most devastation of injuries and burns patient may suffer from their complications for the rest of their lives. In developing countries more than 90% of fatal fire-related burns occur over half of which alone occur in south east Asia. Data collected from different areas of the world shows that 75% of deaths in burns infections are due to infection of burn wound (Gottrup et al., 2005). Burns infection are one of the most common hospital acquired infection and are important cause of morbidity and account for 70 – 80%  mortality (Gottrup et al., 2005). Some wound infection can be caused by different groups of microorganism like bacteria, fungi and protozoa. 


The infecting microorganisms may belong to aerobic as well as anaerobic group. Most commonly isolated aerobic microorganism include Staphylococcus aureus. Coagulase – negative Staphylococci, Enterococci, Enterobacter species, Proteus mirabils, Candida albicans and Acinetobacter. (Taylfour et al., 2005). Antimicrobial resistance can increase complications and cost associated with procedures and treatment (Anguzu and Olila, 2007).


Knowledge of the causative agents of wound infection in a specific geographic region will therefore be useful in the selection of antimicrobials for empiric therapy. 


Thermal injury destroys the physical barrier that normally prevents the penetration of microorganisms (Alghalibi et al., 2011). The skin is one of the largest organs in the body that perform vital functions such as fluid homeostasis, heat regulation, immunologic functions e.g. allergies, resistance to disease and acceptance or rejection of foreign tissues neurosensory and metabolic functions. The skin barrier is the natural guard to prevent the entry of pathogenic organisms inside the body. 

Destruction of skin barrier provides favorable entry site for the bacteria to invade and grow. Wound sepsis remains the most dangerous out-come in patients who have suffered major burn injuries and leads to overwhelming mortality among patients with extensive burn wounds. Burns will almost inevitably be colonized by microorganism with 24 to 48hrs and these remains as localized infection (Adcock et al., 1998).

Bacteria is a common cause of fatality in severe burns patients and may occurs any time from the first day until the point when they have entirely healed (Adcock et al., 1998). Other major factors responsible for mortality in burns victims are fluid and protein loss, pulmonary edema and pneumonia.

1.1 JUSTIFICATION

This study may help to understand the susceptibility pattern of some commonly used antibiotics against bacteria isolated from burns. The study can potentially identify the risk of bacteria in burns. So the knowledge of antibiotic susceptibility pattern is essential to give proper antibiotic therapy and to avoid unnecessary medication with non – effective drug which may increase resistance.

1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES

This project was aimed at determining the pattern of some commonly used antibiotic against bacteria isolated from burns.
The specific objectives are:
·  To isolate and identify bacteria form burn patient attending Yusuf Dantsoho Memorial Hospital Kaduna.
·   To determine the susceptibility patterns of some selected antibiotics against the bacterial isolate.
 


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