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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder without a known care. The present study was under taken to investigate biologically active compounds in Moringa oleifera pods with emphasis on those with antidrabetic potential. The extraction of Moringa oleifera pods was carried out via maceration using 70% methanol. Fractionation of the macerate was by liquid- liquid partitioning using solvents of very polarities. Physicochemical properties and phyrochemical screening were evaluated using standard laboratories procedures. The total ash, acid- insoluble ash, water insoluble ash, alcohol- soluble extractive value, water- soluble extractive value and moisture conmmmm welt 6.5%, 3%,1%,3.2%4.2% and 5% respectively. The qualitative revealed the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, Glycosides, Polyhenols, steroids, tannins and terpenoids in the crude extract and some of it’s fractions. Anthraquinones (free and combined) and phlobatinnins were absent in the extract and fractions. The result of the study shows that Moringa oleifera pods contains.
Medicinal plants have been identified and used throughout human history. Medicinal plants contain active ingredients when can be used for therapeutic purposes. They also contain precursor compounds that be used for the synthesis of useful and important drugs. (Simpson and Ogarzary, 1986). Chemical compounds in plants have biological function which include define against insects, fungi and herbivorous animals. About 12,000 of such compounds have been isolated, a number estimated to be less then 10& of the total ( La, and Roy, 2004).
Ethnobotany, the study of traditional human use of plants is recognized as an effective way to discover future medicines. In 2001, researchers identified 122 compounds used in modern medicine which were derive from traditional plants sources, 80%of these have had a traditional use identical or related to the current use of the active elements of the plant (Fabricants and Farnsworth, 2001).
Some of these Pramacenticals includes aspirin, diagoxin, guanine and 9am (swain and tong, 1968). The world health organization (who) estimates that 80% of the population of the world depends on traditional medicine (which refers to health practices, knowledge and beliefs incorporating plants, animal and mineral bared medicines, spiritual therapies, mannal techniques and exercises, applied singularly or in combination to treat, diagnose and prevent illness or maintain well being) mostly herbal remedies, for their primary health care needs (WHO, 2005).
1.1 Justification of Study
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly reffered to as diabetes is a group of metabolic in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period (WHO, 2014). Which can lead to other complications such as hypertension, heat diseases, nervous disorder e.t.c symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent arination, increased thirst and increased hunger. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced (Shobback, 2011).
There are three mian types of diabetes mellitus type diabetes mellitus result from the pancerase failure to produce enough insulin. This forms was previously referred to (insulin dependent diabetes mellitus” (100m). type 2 diabetes mellitus begins with insulin resistance a condition. In which cell fail to respond to the insulin properly, previously reffered to as “non- insulin dependent occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels. (WHO, 20130).
Diabetes mellitus is a disease as old as mankind, is affects citizens of both developing and developed countries and has been treated traditionally using medicinal plants. It is a disease without a known cure and often managed. It is treated using various orthodox methods and herbal remedies especially for citizens of developing countries use as Nigeria.
People living with diabetes in these countries use medicinal plants some of which have been found to be effective plants have been important source of natural products for human health. The antidrabetic properties of plant have been investigate by a number of studies worldwide and many of them have been used as therapeutical alternatives because of their antiviabedic potential (Adriam et al., 2007). Moringa oleifera is used by people in the rural areas for the management of diabetes. The leaver, fruits and seeds are used with the believe that it reduces blood sugar levels.
Inspire of the great strides made in the understanding of the pathogenesis and management of the diseases, diabetes mellitus and it’s complications remain major medical problem. The search for a cure among medicinal plants is on the increase worldwide.
1.2 Aims and Objectives
The aim of this project is to investigate Moringa oleifera pods for biologically active constituent with emphasis on those with antidiabetic potential.
The aim will be achieved through the following objective.
- Extraction of Moringa oleifera pods using 80% methanol.
- Liquid- liquid partitioning of the 80% methanol macctate.
- Pharmacognositc evaluation of the Moringa oleifera pods
- Photochemical screening of the crude maccrate and tractions of Moringa oleifera pods.