Wednesday, 22 March 2017

Physicochemical And Bacteriological Quality Assessment Of Borehole Water In Kakuri, Kaduna



ABSTRACT
The concerned over exposure to drinking water contaminants and the resultant adverse effect on human health has prompted several studies evaluating the quality of drinking water source. 50 Bore Hole water sample was collected from 25 functional Bore Holes in Kakuri, two water samples from each Bore Hole were collected using standard techniques. The physicochemical parameters analyzed include, odour, colour taste, temperature, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, acidity, total suspended solid, total dissolved solid, total hardness and chloride. The Bore Hole water samples were determined using standard procedures. World Health Organization (WHO) and National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) recommended acceptable limit for drinking water were used in the evaluation. All physiochemical parameters in the Bore Hole water samples were showed to be within recommended permissible limit of WHO and NAFDAC standard for potable drinking water standard.



The bacteriological analyses were carried out using the Most Probable Number technique (MPN). From the analysis BH1a, BH1b, BH2a,BH2b, BH11a, BH11b, BH12a, BH12b, BH19a, BH19b, BH20a and BH20b tested negative for total coliforms and fell within the recommended limit of WHO and NAFDAC standard for drinking water. While the remaining Bore Hole water sample tested positive for coliform with values that ranged from 0 - 130 MPN /100ml and it fell above the permissible limit of WHO and NAFDAC standard for potable drinking water. This study has show that water from the Bore Holes in Kakuri in Kaduna South Local Government area is not all safe for drinking. The bacteriological assessment of the Bore Hole water samples showed that 34 of the Bore Hole water samples were contaminated with coriform, hence good and proper environmental and personal hygiene must be maintained especially by the user, of these Bore Hole to prevent their contamination with bacteria pathogen. Bore Holes should also be properly constructed with good understanding of site.         

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

Water is a key component in determining the quality of our lives. Although water covers about 70 percent of the earth’s total surface, only 0.3% of it can be used by humans (Timub et al., 2012). Among the various sources of water, ground water is the largest reservoir of drinking water (Timub et al., 2012)

Ground water is that water reservoir found in the saturated part of the ground underneath the land surface. It normally accumulate there when the water seep into the ground and move downward due to gravity through the pore spaces found between soil particles and crack in rock. The water eventually reaches a depth where the soil and rock are saturated (USEPA, 2014). Ground water is an important source of water supply with a number of advantages.
(i)   It is commonly free from pathogenic organism due to infiltration and requires little or no treatment,
(ii)  Turbidity and colour are generally absent,
(iii) It chemical composition is almost stationary (Al-kasimi, 2002).

Despite this advantage, ground water is susceptible to pollution as a result of recent or past human activities (Okoli, Chidi, Chuwuocha et al., 2008).
Ground water is an important source of water for agricultural and domestic uses especially in developing countries for agricultural and domestic uses especially in developing countries like Nigeria, due to long retention time and filtration capacity of aquifers. Water that is meant for consumption must be safe. Water is said to be safe for drinking when it is free of pathogens, poisonous substances and excessive amount of mineral and organic matter (Al-kasimi, 2002).

Though water is an indispensable commodity for sustenance of life, there is however an inherent danger associated with it consumption when it is polluted. Polluted water is that which contained industrials, agricultural or domestic waste or even other naturally occurring chemicals in excess amount as to render the water unacceptable for its intended usage. Any substance that causes such undesirable changes in the water quality is known as a pollutant. Assessment of the concentration of chemicals and other pollutants in ground water will help in ensuring water supply as a way of curtailing many direct threats to human health (USEPA, 2003).

1.1Sources of Water
These include seawater, surface water and ground water. Seawater is too salty for human consumption and man require non-saline Or  freshwater. Drinking water of most communities and municipalities is obtained from surface sources such as rivers, streams and lakes. The natural water bodies are likely to be polluted with domestic and industrial wastes i.e. sewage. Ground water such as dug well, drilled well (bore hole) and spring could also serve as source of fresh water. The most suitable sources will depend on local circumstances (Obiri-Adjel, Stanley and Jones, 2009).

1.2 Importance of Water
Water makes up more than two thirds of human body weight, and without water, we would die in a few days. The human brain is made up of 95% water; blood is 82% and lungs 90%. A mere 2% drop in our body’s water supply can trigger sings of dehydration: Fuzzy short-term memory, trouble with basic math, and difficulty focusing on smaller print such a computer screen. Mild dehydration is also one of the most common causes of fatigue (Havelaar,2000).

Water is important to the mechanics of the human body. The body cannot work without it, just as a car cannot run without gas and oil. In fact, all the cell and organ functions that make up our entire anatomy and physiology depend on water for their functioning (Havelaar,2000).

Water is important to the mechanics of the human body. The body cannot work without it, just as a car cannot run without gas and oil. In fact, the entire cell an organ functions that make up our entire anatomy and physiology depend on water for their functioning.

Water serves as a lubricant in digestion and at most all the body processes. The water in our saliva helps facilitate chewing and swallowing, ensuring that food will slide easily downs the esophagus. Water also lubricates our joints and cartilages and allows them to move more fluidly (Havelaar, 2000).
Our body can control over-heating through perspiration from sweat glands in the skin and from evaporation which produce a cooling effect. Blood is also routed into areas close to the surface of the skin where it can be cooled and then carried back to the interior of the body. In a cold environment, the skin maintains proper body temperature by shunting the blood away from the exterior surface thereby conserving heat within the body. The movement of water within our cellular systems also transports vital blood plasma which is 92% made of water. Blood plasma play a critical role in buffering the body pH, circulating antibodies from the immune system, and regulating osmotic balance which all helps to maintain proper body temperature (Havelaar, 2000).

1.3 Water Pollution
This is termed as a change in the chemical or physical or the biological content of the water, in a water supply that prevents or limits further use of the water or impair man’s aesthetics enjoyment of the water (Chilton, 1996). Groundwater contamination or Borehole water contamination occurs when man made products such as gasoline, oil, road salts and chemicals get into the ground water and cause it to become unsafe and unfit for human use.
Materials from the land’s surface can move through the soil and end up in the ground water. For example, pesticides and fertilizers can find their way into ground water supplies over time. Toxic substances from mining sites and used motor oil also may seep into ground water. In addition it is possible for untreated waste from septic tanks and toxic chemicals from underground storage tanks and leaky landfills to contaminate or pollute borehole water. It is not always possible to tell if bore water is contaminated, however, some signs of potential trouble include the following;
       (i)    An unusual odour (smell)
      (ii)    An upset stomach
                   (iii)    A low pH (acid water)
                   (iv)    Soap suds around sprinkler outlets
                    (v)    A change in water colour
                    (vi)   Dying or wilting plants (Chilton, 1996).

1.4  Statement of Problem
       Groundwater source are being increasingly used as drinking water, testing to see whether the water is of good quality is almost non-existence. Although, it is true that soils generally functions to reduce the effect of micro-organisms by a simple filtration mechanism especially larger bacterial and protozoa, pollution or contamination of bore hole water by micro-organisms, especially those located near septic tanks or landfills or those within the proximity of soak away and pit latrines significantly do occur.
        
         1.5   Aim and Objectives of the Study
       The aim of the study is to carry out physicochemical and bacteriological quality assessment on water samples obtained from randomly selected boreholes in Kakuri, Kaduna  in order to ascertain:
(i)    To determine the physical parameters of the borehole water samples.
(ii)   To determine the chemical parameters of the borehole water samples.
(iii)  To determine the coliform quality in the bore hole water samples.
          
            1.6     Scope of the Study
The scope of the research work will cover the physicochemical and bacteriological quality assessment of borehole water obtained from Kakuri of Kaduna.
            1.7     Limitation
Normally, the metropolis has numerous boreholes which make these research work restricted to the randomly selected boreholes to represent the study area. The research work is also limited to laboratory analysis carried out on water samples to obtain result.
 

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