Sunday, 19 March 2017

Determination of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals in Egg Shell

Determination of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals in Egg Shell project topics and materials

The alkali and alkaline earth metal concentrations in eggshell of Agric Chicken, Domestic Chicken, Duck and Quail was carried out using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The result obtained revealed that the sodium concentration in the eggshells analyzed in this study were 5.3419ppm, 5.4839ppm, 5.2934ppm, and 6.6718ppm, for Agric Chicken, Domestic  Chicken, Duck and Quail  eggshells respectively. In the case of potassium, the results revealed that 1.0962ppm, 0.6871ppm, 1.4713ppm and 1.6189ppm for eggshells of Agric Chicken, Domestic Chicken, Duck and Quail respectively. The results of calcium in the eggshells revealed concentration of 15.9807, 15.2303 14.9241 and 16.0135 for Agric Chicken, Domestic Chicken, Duck and quail eggshells. In the same vein, the magnesium concentration in the shells analyzed in this study revealed concentrations of 1.1655ppm, 0.4476ppm, 1.1655ppm and 1.2199ppm for Agric Chicken, domestic Chicken, Duck and quail eggshells respectively. The results obtained were compared with WHO recommended intake for sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium and it was established that all the eggshells contain substantial amount of these valuable elements and therefore the eggshells can be used as nutrient source especially in feed formulations of poultry and other livestock.    

1.0       Introduction
Eggs are laid of female animals of many different species including, reptiles, amphibian mammals, birds and fish. Egg has been eaten by humans for several thousand fears. While the eggshells are the protective cover waste primary that consist of calcium or magnesium carbonate (Limes), mineral elements and protein. (Jones, 2002). 

The most popular choice of consumption is caviar egg which consists of a protective cover (egg shell), albumen and yolk. Eggs serve as a food supplement and ingredient due to amount of protein and collagen stored in it despite the nutritional value of egg, there are some potential health issues arising from egg qualify, storage and individual allergies. Eggs are highly consumed by human every day because of its higher nutritional value in the body. 

The disposal of eggshell and hatchery waste was not only a problem for the poultry rearing, although it is the global environmental pollution problem which alleviated in many other countries, where it was an acceptable practice to feed treated eggshell to animals as source of calcium and these was a very efficient option for the disposal of eggshell. The calcium and magnesium oxide and the burn time could be used as a liming agent. Egg shell membrane contains around 10% collagen could be used for skin grafts, dental implant, angioplasty sleeves, cornea repair, plastic surgery and treatment of osteoponsis (Jone, 2002).

1.1       Description of Eggshell
An eggshell is the outer cover of a hard egg and of some forms of eggs with soft outer coats. Bird eggshells contain calcium carbonate and dissolve in various acids including the vinegar used in cooking while dissolving, the calcium carbonate in an egg shell reacts with the acids to form carbondioxide (France, 2003). CaC03 +2HCl=è CACL2+ H2 O+CO2
after several years of improve experience some of the members of eggshell were created at about the time of additions because amniotes egg are crystallized and hardened with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or aragonite (CaCO3+ mg mixture). The eggshell internal structure, help the scientist to describe and identity eggshell (Butter- worth, 1987). 

However, identification of the animal that laid embryonic materials is preserved in association with the shell by eggs and eggshell are rare but important part of the vertebrate fossil record amniotes eggs and egg shells (amniotes are the group of animals including reptiles, birds and mammals that lay eggs which common eggshells found in the fossil record egg. By 1930s articles mentioning egg  shell appear, peaking in the 60’s and early  70’s. So far active not passive found a definitive first use of dyed eggshell for mosaics but at some point a definite and emerged by handing (Johrsord et al.,2000).
1.1.1 The Quality of Eggshell
In a natural environment, eggshells must be strong enough to prevent cracking in order to preserve the embryo until hatching. In the context of a farm, shell strength is necessary to prevent damage from handling and to preserve eggs during transport from farm to market (Altuntas et al., 2008) is pointed out by wash burn 1982. 

The occurrence of shell breakage be categorized into a number could occur before lay, at the point of lay during collection, processing and shipping or transporting (Altuntas et al., 2008) the breeder industry also incur greater economic losses due to reduced chicken embryo losses of hatchability because the successful development of chicken embryos is dependent upon a robust eggshell for mechanical resistance, protection from infection, prevention of water loss and as a primary source of calcium for the embryonic skeleton (Yang et al., 2010).
Eggs can be regarded as naturally package food, the eggshell serves to contains the egg contents, but it is also the first barrier against bacterial penetration and must be free from defects in order to optimize the safety of the contents for human consumption (Yang et al., 2012).
1.1.2  Egg Shell as Waste
Egg shell is regarded as a waste by food producers and has to be disposed at land fills sites, but scientists hope they can give eggshell a second lease of life which would reduce manufacture costs significantly and generate income for egg producers, rather than being a financial drain on their business.
1.2  Uses of Eggshells
They are various important uses of eggshells that includes both medicinal and economic important.    
1.2.1 Eggshell as Cosmetic Purpose
Egg shell can be used as an ingredient for cosmetics purpose (Solomon, 1991). The eggshell should be grinded and added into a finger nail published to make it stronger and more durable. On other hand the crushed eggshells, can also be used to create a natural and artificial scrub that will not only remove the death skin tissue or cell, but will also reduced the winkles (Solomon, 1991).
 1.2.2 Eggshell as Powerful and Natural Abrasive Cleaner
By grounding the eggshells and mixed them with the soapy water and use it to clean dishes, pots and other cooking utensils. Therefore, the eggshell make outstanding abrasive for dishes, and can even used to clean the bed feeders and remove the entire gunk that has accumulated (John, 1989).
1.2.3 Eggshells as Garden Fertilizer
Eggshells are rich in calcium and other minerals that help for garden thrive. The eggshells could be crushed into tiny pieces and then sprinkle it into each plaiting holes before planting any seedling, then sprinkle additional shells around the base of the plants every two weeks (Carter, 1970).
1.2.4 Eggshell as Gastritis Ulcer Remedy
Some crushed eggshells pick using the tip of the knife. This amount of eggshells will be enough for treating these diseases, mixed the crushed eggshells with two table spoon of lemon juice. When the eggshell is softening, add one deciliter of hot milk. Then consume this mixture two times a day on an empty stomach on the morning and before bed time in the evening (John, 1989).
1.2.5 Eggshell as Calcium Supplement
Eggshell are known to be very rich in calcium which can easily wash them only using warm water when boiled with the warm water, it can be used to kill  bacteria (Carter, 1970).
1.2.6  Eggshells as Chalk
To prepare side work chalk from eggshell, the following will be needed which include. Approximately five empty eggshells, one tea spoon flour, one tea spoon very hot water, food coloring (for colored chalk). Wash and dry the eggshells, then crushed the eggshell into a bowl and grind it until it’s a powder. 

Make all the process grounded. Take out any piece before going on to the next step. Mixed flour and hot water in another bowl, then one table spoon eggshell powder and mixed into a thick. Add a favorite color food coloring (1to 2 drops for colored chalk), but if it is white chalks the colorant should not be added. The paste should now be shaped into chalk sticks or process into soap mould for fun shapes. It making chalk sticks roll the sticks up tightly in a paper let the chalk dry for 3 days (Scott, 1971).
1.2.7 Eggshell as Pest Control
Crush eggshell and scatter them around your vegetable and flowers to find off slugs, snails and cutworms. These soft bodies critters don’t like crawling over sharp piece of shell the smell of eggs will also deter deer.  
1.2.8 Eggshell as Cat Detergent
Crushed up eggshell will keep them away, too just scatter in the areas that they frequent, and after stepping on those shells, a few times they will move on (Scott, 1971).
1.3  Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals
1.3.1 Alkali Metals
The alkali metals are group (column one) of the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li) sodium (Na), potassium (k), Rabidium (Rb), cacsium (CS) and francium (Fr). This group lies in the s block of the periodic table of elements. All alkali metals have their outer most electron in an S- orbital. This shared electron configuration results in them having a very similar characteristic properties. Indeed, the alkali metals provide the best example of group trends in properties of the periodic table, with elements exhibiting well characterized homologous behaviour. 

Alkali metals have the followings properties the metals are all shing, soft, highly reactive at standard temperature. And pressure and readily lose their outer most electron to form cations with charge they can all be cut easily with a knife due to their softness, exposing a shiny surface that tarnishes mpidly in air due to oxidation by atmospheric moisture and oxygen (and in the case of lithium nitrogen). Because of their high reactivity they must be stored under oil to prevent reaction egg oil (paraffin oil). With air are found naturally only in salts and never found as free elements. 

Caesium, the fifth alkali metals is the most reactive of all the metals why. In the modern IUPAC nomenclature, the alkali metals comprise the group one elements excluding hydrogen (H), which is normally a group one elements but normally considered to be an alkali metal as it rarely exhibits behaviour comparable to that of the alkali metals. All the alkali metals react with water, with the heavier alkali metals reacting more vigorously than the lighter ones. Prevention and absorption of their nutrient  (Burley, 1989).
1.3.2 Alkaline Earth Metals
The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in column (group) 2 of the periodic table, they are beryllium (Be), Magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca) strongtium (Sr), Barium (Ba) and Radium (Ra). They have the following properties, they are all shiny, silvery, white, somewhat reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure. Structurally, they have in common an outers electron shell which is full, 2,3,4 that electrons which these elements readily lose to form cations with charge of 2 and an oxidation state (Oxidation number) of +2. () both alkali and alkaline earth metals are essential mineral elements required by an organisms in only milligram or micro grams per day. 

Compared to the requirement of protein, vitamins, carbohydrates and fats which are required in large quantity. Most of the essential trace elements functions as enzymes, cofactors or prosthetic group. Example of this trace element include sodium and potassium human beings, like other animals have needed mineral elements from their everyday diet. Circumstance and maintenance of adequate concentration of one or more mineral elements necessitating additional supplementation in order to restore normal function. Through trace elements are required in very small amount in human being, their presence in the body is very important for the normal metabolic function of the body. Hence the deficiency of these elements can lead to serious adverse effects for instance calcium makes up approximately two percent of your total body weight and contribute to many basic body function such as disease.
1.4       Principle of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric Techniques (ASS)  
Atomic absorption instruments are basically spectrophotometers with a burner compartment. They consist of a hollow cathode discharge lamp as the source of radiation, monochrometer, a detector and a read out system.    
The use of atomic absorption spectra was first proposed and developed by Wash in 1955. Atomic absorption spectra are formed by the absorption of radiation of certain wavelength by atoms whose electrons are in the ground state. The atoms became excited on absorbing the energy.
In practice, a solution of an elements is sprayed into a cool flame in which the atoms are in the ground state. Radiation of characteristic wavelength from a hollow cathode discharge lamp is passed through the flame, and a decrease in intensity due to absorption by atoms in measured by a monochrometer and a detector system. The decrease is related to the concentration of the elements in solution  
  1.5 Aim
To determine the levels of sodium potassium, calcium and magnesium in various eggshells.
1.5.1    Objective
i.  To determine the amount of Na, k, Ca and Mg in eggshells of agric chicken, domestic chicken, duck chicken and quill bird.
ii. To characterized the various eggshells according to their hardness.
iii.To relate the amount of metals obtained with the hardness of eggshell  
iv. To compare the levels with standards.


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