Sunday, 19 March 2017

Assessment Of Bacteriological Quality Of Selected Butchers Tools Within Kaduna Metropolis

Assessment Of Bacteriological Quality Of Selected Butchers Tools Within Kaduna Metropolis PROJECT TOPICS AND MATEIALS DOWNLOAD


ABSTRACT
Fourty eight samples comprising of three different butchers’ tools (butchers’ knives, Tables, meat cutting board and wood planks on meat sellers’ wheel barrows) were swabbed from four different areas within Kaduna selected butchers sales outlet ( Tudun wada, Barnawa kiosk, Television garage and Romi markets).The Bacteriological assessment of  the butchers tools were evaluated using total viable count, gram staining and biochemical test. Of the four butchers sales outlets analyzed, Tudun- wada and Barnawa had the highest bacterial load on knife that ranged between 9.4x103 cfu/ml to 7.9x104 cfu/ml and 7.7x103 cfu/ml to 5.4x104 cfu/ml,


while cutting board had the lowest bacteria load with 6.4x103
cfu/ml to 4.4x104 cfu/ml. However, wood planks on wheelbarrow had the highest bacteria load at Television Garage and Romi that ranged between 8.6x103 cfu/ml to 5.3x104 cfu/ml and 8.2x103 cfu/ml to 4.2x104 cfu/ml while the cutting board had the lowest bacteria load with 5.4x103 cfu/ml to 4.0x104 cfu/ml The four of the isolates were positive to Catalase test. One of the isolate was positive to Coagulase, indole and oxidase test. However, three isolates were negative to Coagulase, indole, and oxidase test. Bacteria isolated from the butchers swabbed samples were Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and streptococcus pyogens. The presence of these enteric pathogens in these tools is an indication of poor hygiene practice by the meat sellers which can lead to cross contamination of meat resulting in out breaks of some diseases. 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Food borne diseases occur commonly in developing countries particularly Africa because of the prevailing poor food handling and sanitation practices, inadequate food safety laws, weak regulatory systems, lack of financial resources to invest in safer equipment and lack of education for food handlers of the foods intended for humans, those of animal origin tend to be most hazardous unless the principle of the hygiene is employed (World Health Organization 2000).

Animal products such as meat, fish and their product are generally regarded as high risk commodity in respect to pathogen contents, natural toxins and other possible contaminants and adulterants. Food borne diseases have been considered as an important health problem in different countries. In developing countries like Nigeria, there is no precise data about the incidence of food borne out breaks and it seems to be higher compared to developed countries (World Health Organization 2000), World Health Organization (WHO) reported that fifty (50) million children under five (5) years of age get diarrheal disease each year, due to contaminated water and food stuffs.


Meat is a good source of animal protein and the expectation of all consumers is to purchase meat that is safe and wholesome meat produced in an unhygienic condition could pose threat to the health of the consumers as well as impair the keeping quality of such meat. Contamination of meat can result from contaminated working surfaces equipments and the workers hands used in the processing, the quality of water used in meat processing at the butcher shops also play a major role in reducing or increasing meat contamination, as water is used in washing the working surfaces, carcasses blood of meat, equipment and workers (Jajali et al., 2006).


Bacterial contamination of meat products is unavoidable consequent of meat processing, hygienic and quality control methods of meat and meat products, especially in food catering having been recommended in many countries, without proper hygienic control, the environment in butchers area can act as important sources of bacterial contamination.


The risk of disease from ingesting pathogens found in raw meat is significantly higher than cooked meat, although both can be contaminated. Meat can be incorrectly or insufficiently cooked, allowing disease carrying pathogens to be ingested. Also, meat can be contaminated during the production process at any time, from the slicing of prepared meat to cross-contamination of food in a refrigerator, all these situation leads to a greater risk of disease (Endale et al 2013).

Every year in the Nigeria, 6.5 million to 33 million cases of illness are diagnosed due to microbial pathogens, with about 900,000 deaths occurring annually as well according to a multi-state study published in the annual cost of disease caused By food borne pathogen is estimated to be anywhere from 9.3 to 12.9 billion dollars in “medical cost and productivity losses”. Most of these disease comes from contact with contaminated raw meat, although other vehicles of transmission” are becoming more and more frequent due to global travel, (America journal of preventive medicine, 2012).Other sources of disease causing pathogens can include, but are not limited to lettuce, sprouts, fruits juices, vegetables, raw milk and water; however the main source of disease caused by microbial pathogens is usually raw meat.


The type of pathogen present varies depending on the type of meat eaten (Wallace et al., 2007). The risk of disease from a ready-to-eat product such as chicken nuggets is significantly higher due to the fact that many consumers do not re-cook them, believing them to be safe. Escherichia Coli and Shebelle and Salmonella have all been found in ready to eat products.


A study of working practices is shops selling raw meats including butcher’s shops, supermarkets and general stores (journal of hygiene and sanitation, 2016), found pathogens on slicing machines, wiping cloths, worker’s hands, bowels, and nail brushers. These facilitated the contamination of ready cooked meats. This example shows the need of a method of detection.

There are many diseased causing pathogens found in raw meat, and they differ according to the source, whether it is mammalian, poultry or sea food. Some diseased causing pathogens found in beef are Salmonella, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, listeria Monocytogens. Different varieties of salmonellae are often found in contaminated poultry. Seafood itself can also contain a wide variety of pathogens. The most common pathogen in raw oysters is Vibrio Gastroenteritis, while Salmonella, and Staphylococcus are found in contaminated raw shrimp, and Vibrio cholera has been found in raw crab meat. Many of the symptoms that result from these diseases involve intestinal damage and can have potentially fatal effects for those at risk (Scanga et al., 2002). The symptoms of  E. coli infection include bloody diarrhea, severe abdominal pain, and possible complications can include Hemolytic Uremic syndrome (HUS) and neurological problems.

The symptoms of Vibrio gastroenteritis include frequent fevers, bloody diarrhea, long duration of illness and hospitalization while most of these diseases are still most commonly found in raw meat, the instances of detection in other mediums are increasing for instances, Salmonella is most commonly found in poultry, but has been recently identified in sources such as eggs, diary, meat fresh vegetables and fruits. E. coli has also been found in beef, lamb, lettuces, sprouts, fruits juices, vegetables, raw milk and water (Duffy et al., 2002).

However in Nigeria, a number of foods (meat inclusive) have been reported to have high incidence of bacteria
(Clarence et al.,2009). But there is limited information on the health challenges from food borne diseases from fresh meat retailed within a highly populous community. It was on this basis that it became necessary and essential to give useful information about the bacterial loads in most meat sold in Nigeria, which is an indication of this sanitary condition in such area. Although contamination does not necessarily mean food-borne transmission, the possibility of these organisms being a foodborne pathogen should be investigated.


1.2. JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY
In Nigeria, a number of foods (meat inclusive) have been reported to have high incidence of bacteria . However there is limited information on the health challenges from food borne diseases in  meat retailed within a highly populous country such as Nigeria. It is on this basis that it became necessary and essential to give useful information about the bacterial loads in most meat sellers’tools / equipment in Nigeria, which is an indication of sanitary condition in such materials.  Although contamination does not necessarily mean food-borne transmission, the possibility of these organisms being a foodborne pathogen needs to be investigated (Clerence at al., 2009).
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
AIM
The aim of this research is to assess the bacteriological quality of butcher’s tools within selected Kaduna Metropolis specifically the objectives are:

OBJECTIVES
                  i.  To isolate and identify bacterial isolates from the butcher’s seller’s tools within selected Kaduna sale outlets.
                   ii.  To determine the bacteria load on meat butcher’s tools.

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