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Delineation of the Interfacial Configuration in a Section of Millennium City

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The investigation of subsurface properties of a site for urban development is important in order to select the kind of structured foundation design for buildings and other amenities. A geoelectrical survey was carried out to determine the geotechnical characteristics as well as evaluate the groundwater potential of the study area. A total of thirty Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) were carried out using Schlumberger electrode configuration with half current electrode spacing of maximum 100 m. The Interpreted data revealed that the study area is underlain by three to five layers. The top soils thickness and resistivity values vary from and respectively.

The thickness and resistivity of the weathered basements is between and respectively. The fresh basement layer which has resistivity valuesvaries from is of infinite depth and thickness. The competent zones where the basement rocks are highly resistive with a shallow depth have been recommended for construction work site such as high rise buildingsand roads. Also, the areas where the basement rocks are deep are recommended for sewage and waste disposal site. Similarly, areas with relatively high thickness of the weathered layer and low resistivity values of the weathered and fracture zones have been successfully identified as potential aquifer zone targets for groundwater exploitation.



Large-scale urban sprawl and urbanization are common phenomenon in most developing countries. Building collapse and drinkable-water shortage are major problems confronting the people living in an urban settlement of the world.Urbanization has been accelerating at a tremendous rate. According to data collected by the United Nations 1990, 50 years ago less than 30 percent of the world population lived in cities(Lukuman, 2015). Now, more than 50 percent are living in urban settings which occupy only about one percent of the earth’s surface. During the period from 1950 to 1995, the number of cities with population higher than one million increased from 85 to 325. According to the United Nations reports, by 2025, it is estimated that more than 60 percent of 8.3 billion people will be city dwellers(Lukuman, 2015). The alarming rate of structural failure such as roads, buildings, dam and bridges in Nigeria hasbecome more intense.

Like other regions, Millennium City located in the capital City of Kaduna State is speculated to be a centre of attraction which may soon experience mass influx of people. In order to accommodate this expected population expansion, indiscriminate building of houses without proper geotechnical investigation, could lead to future disaster occurrence. The major problem and failure of engineers from the time past is the disregard of the fact that the design of any structure ought to proceed by a careful geophysical investigation of the site.

Thus, an adequate determination of geoelectrical and geological conditions at building sites is an essential component of proper City planning(Adebisi and Oloruntola, 2006). Adebisi and Oloruntola, (2006), observed that foundation failures are rarely due to facility structural design; they are usually related to failure of the load-bearing foundation with respect to the bed rock of the site.

The geophysical studies provide the geotechnical information required in the engineering design in order to enhance the strength and the stability of the buildings or structures. The applications of such geophysical investigations are used for the determination of bedrock, structural mapping and evaluation of subsoil competence (Opara, 2006).

The aim of the present work is to apply the Schlumberger Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) to delineate the interfacial configuration of the study area so as to ascertain its fitness for civil engineering and other related works as well as determine its groundwater potential.

Background Of The Study

The failure statistics of structures such as buildings, tarred roads and bridges throughout the nation is increasinggeometrically. Most of these failures were caused by swelling and shrinking of clays. Therefore, the knowledge of the probable cause of rampant failure of building foundations due to subsurface movements giving rise to cracks or structural differential settlements has been a great concern to geoscientists (Fadele, etal., 2012).Since structure foundationought to proceed by a careful geophysical investigation of the site.

Thus, an adequate determination of geological conditions at building sites is an essential component of proper city planning in order to avoid any future foundation failures. On the other hand, all people irrespective of their development, economics and social condition are entitled to have access to drinking water in good quality and quantities(NWRI, 2011).

Though, there is no evidence of any geophysical investigation that was carried out in the study area in the past but the previous research conducted in the neighbouring of the study area. These situations therefore make this type of investigation a primafacie for precise location of structure and productive boreholes site. While the government is largely responsible to protect life and properties of her citizen, this research will provide good information of subsurface properties underlain in the study area in order to adequately advise government.

Justification of the study

The frequent collapse of building structures in Nigeria in the past few years has become very alarming and worrisome. In recent times the rates at which buildings collapse in Nigeria have been on the increase, killing people and destroying properties in the process. Adebisi and Oloruntola, (2006), are of the view that foundationfailures are rarely due to facility structural design but usually related to failure of the load-bearing foundation beds.

According to Loke, (1999), the involvement ofgeophysics in civil and environmentalengineering has become a promising approach in the last decade.Geophysical methods are implemented in a widerange of applications ranging from buildingground investigations to the inspection of damsand dikes,which aids in the exploration of geological structuresand the determination of the physical parametersof the rock and soil formations (Adebisi and Oloruntola, 2006). Like other places, Kaduna Millennium City is one of the centre of attraction in Kaduna State.

Hence, there is need for good geophysical informationof the subsurface nature of the area to avoid future disaster occurrence. This work can be helpful in providing geophysical survey data on the subsurface properties and the groundwater conditions of the study area to enable the engineers and other professions to understand the nature of the area for their application.

Aim and Objectives of the Study


This work is aimed at providing geotechnical informationabout the study area and the information on the aquifer potential of area in order to ensure proper engineering plans for situating structures.


The objectives of this current study are as follows:

Ø To determine the competent zone of the study area

Ø To delineate the various strata within the subsurface

Ø Providing information on the nature of the area’s aquifer.

Ø To determine good knowledge of the basement geometry.



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