Tuesday, 28 February 2017

Causes Of Drop Out Among Secondary School Students In Kaduna North Local Government Area, Kaduna State


Abstract

The study was carried out to find the Causes of Drop-out among secondary school students in Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State. The survey design was used for the study with a structured questionnaire was used to collect data and mean Statistic was used to analysed data collected. The results showed that dropping out are a serious problem that denies individual students their fundamental human right to education. Low socioeconomic status of school population, high level of racial or ethnic discrimination of students, school phobia, school violence, conflicts among others lead to drop out. High rate of abortion and Insecurity in the society, due to robbery by the students who have been dropped affects their academic performance. The research recommends that Teachers should cultivate the spirit of motivation and stop bulling or abusing students which questions is not correctly answered or when cases of dropout is manifested. Adequate facilities should put in all schools in Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State to enhance student interest in classroom management and school activities. Government should provide a good prize for any student who performs very well in academic session, to motivate the students feeling in Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State




Table of Contents

Title Page                                                                             

Declaration                                                                  

Certification                                                                 

Dedication                                                                   

Acknowledgements                                                              

Table of Contents                                                        

Abstract                           
                                                          

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study                                                     

Statement of the Problem                                                      

Purpose of the Study                                                           

Research Questions                                                               

Significance of the Study                                                        

Scope of the Study                                                               

Limitation of the Study    
                                          

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Introduction                                                                 

Nature of Dropout among Secondary School Students     

Causes of Dropout among Secondary School Student      

Consequences of Dropout among Secondary School Students                                                                         

Summary of Reviewed Literature                                        


CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Introduction                                                                  
Research Design                                                           
Area of the Study                                                         
Population of the Study                                                        
Sample and Sampling Techniques                                      
Instruments used for Collection                                  
Validation of the Instrument                                               
Reliability of the Instrument                                               
Method of Data Collection                                                  
Method for Data Analysis       
                                         

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

Introduction                                                 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Introduction                                                 

Re-Statement of the Problem                               

Summary of Procedure Used                                

MajorFindings

Discussion of Findings Based on Research Questions

Suggestion for further Research                           

Implication of the Study                                      

Conclusions                                                         

Recommendations of the Study                           

References                                                   

Appendixes                                                   

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study
The major concern in basic education is ensuring that students stay in school until they complete their education. Dropping out is a serious problem because it denies individual students their fundamental human right to education. There is general consensus that the school dropout problem has reached epidemic proportions internationally and has become a global problem confronting the education industry round the world (Patrick 2008; Bridgeland, 2006; Oghuvbu, 2008). 

The students who withdraw from school prematurely end up not obtaining any certificate of graduation (Ajaja, 2012).The major social costs of dropping out of school include reduced political participation, increased demand for social services, increased crime rates and poor levels of health (Azam, 2007). Individual costs include lower earnings, unemployment prospects, greater likelihood of health problems (Thurton, 2006). 

It is clear from the foregoing, that by dropping out of school, most students severely limit their chances of economic and social well-being in the future. In this regard, a UNESCO report (2000) on the state of the world’s children, points out, that about 130 million children in the developing world are denied their right to education through dropping out. Mohsin & Bashir (2010), the problem of dropping out should be the concern of every member of society since it has negative consequences at both the individual and social level.

Thus dropout is not a mere problem that affects or impacts an individual but it is a problem that Therefore, a study of this nature is pertinent and crucial as it is meant to raise awareness concerning school dropout and to understand more specifically the phenomenon of school dropout in secondary schools, especially in rural communities. 

In addition to understanding the causes and consequences of school dropout at the secondary school level thus stimulate the enactment of social policies that will help keep students in school. Ajaja (2012) has categorized reasons why students drop out of school into four clusters that include; school related, Job related, family related, and community related. Frendenberg & Ruglls (2007) identified a number of factors under each cluster as influencing student dropping out of school.
 
The factors identified under family cluster include; low family socioeconomic status, low family support for education, low parental education, conflicts between work and school, having to work and school, having to work or support family, substance use and pregnancy among others. Under school related cluster, Cardoso and Verner (2007) observed factors such as; low socioeconomic status of school population, high level of racial or ethnic discrimination of students, school phobia, school violence, conflicts (with teachers, school mates) among others. 

The job related cluster entails: those students who could not work and school at the same time, those who had to do a job to survive and those who found job while in the community cluster, the following factors were identified: living in a low income neighborhood, having peers with low educational aspirations and having friends or siblings who are dropouts (Ajaja, 2012).

 Rani, (2011) found financial difficulties, child not interested in studies, parents not interested in studies, lack of education facilities in the nearby village, lack of quality education, imposition of parents’ choices upon adolescents, lack of privacy, and toilet facilities for girls in school and security reasons as reasons cited by adolescent for dropping out. Mohsin (2004) noted the weak primary education system, non-availability of trained teachers, and parent teacher relationship as the major causes of dropouts.

Bridgeland (2006) identified five major reasons why students drop out of school as including; (i) classes not interesting, (ii) missed school for many days and could not cope again, (iii) spent a lot of time with those not interested in school, (iv) have absolute freedom to do what I like and (v) failing in school. Another major reason was problem of financial constraint. The parent’s educational status was poor and they did not give much importance to the education of girls as they did to their sons. They perceived that sons support them in their old age (Kotwal & Rani, 2007). Other studies on dropping out have attributed the phenomenon mainly to poverty (Barton, 2006).


Barsaga (2005) described dropouts as coming from low-income families whose parents had little or no education, and who were unemployed or had jobs that gave them little or irregular income. The study also identified reasons for dropping out such as poor health due to malnutrition, distance between home and school, lack of interest, and teacher factor. It concluded that the education system backgrounds.


Stewart (2008) strongly contends that schools attended by students have the sole responsibility and task of reducing dropout rates. In this regard, Stearns & Glennie (2006) contends that lack of diversity in the school curriculum can predispose students into dropping out while Ubogu (2004) underlines the influence of school-related factors that are central to the dropping out problem. namely: policies and practices; student teacher relationships; the nature of the school curriculum; resources and quality of learning.

On the other hand Azzam (2007) contends that many dropouts would have attended schools that have poor facilities and inadequate resources, conditions that affect the performance of the children and ultimately their decision to leave school. It is absolutely clear from the above that the poor quality of education and the schools themselves act as depressant on the demand for education by children. Thus if schools are to keep students in schools then there is need to pay particular attention to the quality of education that the children get from such schools.


Sweeten (2004), who identified economic reason as one of the reasons for dropout. The level of education of most of the parents in rural areas is very low to such an extent that they can be termed illiterates who do not know the value of education hence do not see the need of sending their children to school. Due to poor primary and lower secondary education backgrounds most students in Kaduna North Area have low academic achievers and end up dropping out from school (Mohsin, 2004).

Statement of the Problem
The issue of drop-out of school students varies from place to place. It has become noticeable that the numbers of students facing some severe psychological difficulties are on the increase. This is as a result of their dropping-out from schools in Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State as one of the worst hit areas. The issue of drop-out and its effect centres mostly on the student emotional being, mental being, social and moral being as well as economic being etc. 

Both those who dropped-out at the junior and senior secondary schools suffer these effects. The drop-out and its effects form the whole problem of this research work. There are reasons why students drop out of school as including; (i) classes not interesting, (ii) missed school for many days and could not cope again, (iii) spent a lot of time with those not interested in school, (iv) have absolute freedom to do what I like and (v) failing in school

Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to specifically:
1. Determine the Nature of dropout among Secondary School Students in Kaduna North Local Government Area
2. Assess the causes of dropout among Secondary School Students in Kaduna North Local Government Area
3. Examine the Consequences of Dropout among Secondary School Students in Kaduna North Local Government Area

Research Questions
 In this study, the following research questions were formulated to guide the study.
1.What is the Nature of dropout among Secondary School Students in Kaduna North Local Government Area?
2.What are the causes of dropout among Secondary School Students in Kaduna North Local Government Area?
3.What are Consequences of Dropout among Secondary School Students in Kaduna North Local Government Area?

Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will be very useful to students, parents, Government and the society at large.
When teachers are treated well by their employer, they will help to retain students in school. When facilities are provided in schools, it will help to keep students in school. Then students who would have dropped out and join bad gang, will successfully complete their secondary education, then enter into tertiary in situation and finally become important person in the society
       
The parents on their own will benefit from this study as they will know the evils associated with student dropping out of school. The knowledge from this study will encourage parents to strive very hard and see that their children do not dropout school.
       
The government will also benefit from this study when dropout rate is reduced to almost zero. The money spend on dropout will reduce there will be reduction on educational wastage.
       
The society at large will benefit from this study if there is a drastic reduction in the number of dropouts in our secondary school. This will go a long way to reduce the density of crime in our society. Thus, more lines and property will be saved.

Scope of the Study
This study will observes among other thing the number of secondary schools in Kaduna North local government area in Kaduna state. If the numbers of school is enough to take care the primary school levers. This study will be delimited to the teacher, students and parents in Kaduna North local government area in Kaduna state.

Limitations of the Study
The researcher faced some challenges in the course of the study; this includes the difficulties in the process of sourcing for vital materials needed to accomplish the study. Another problem is that of obtaining permission from the researcher’s school authorities, under whose jurisdiction the researcher was placed, to source for these materials beyond the school walls. The researcher had no control over the respondents’ responses in the feeling of the questionnaire.
 
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