Sunday, 26 February 2017

Biometric Data Capturing System for National Identity Management Commission

The National Identity Management Commission Act 2007 provides for the establishment of the NIMC, its functions, powers, establishment of the National Identity Database, assignment and use of General Multi-purpose cards, and the National Identification Number (NIN). Every citizen from the age of 16 years and above and legal resident are eligible to enroll the National Identity Number (NIN). Object oriented methodology is being used at the development of a system that consists of the recording of an individual’s demographic data and capturing of the ten finger print, head to shoulder facial picture and digital signature, which are also used to cross check existing data in the database before an identity Card is printed (issued).

List of figures
List of symbols and abbreviations
Table of contents

Motivation of Project
Statement of Problem
Purpose of the Study
Scope of the Study
Definition of Terms
Literature Review
Behavioral biometrics 
Verification vs. Identification 
Biometric functionality
The basic block diagram of a biometric system
Multimodal Biometric System
Adaptive Biometric Systems
Characteristics of Biometric Systems
False Reject Rate
False Accept Rate
Crossover Error Rate
Speed and Throughput Rate
Acceptability to Users
Uniqueness of Biometric Organ and Action
Resistance to Counterfeiting
Data Storage Requirements
Enrollment Time
Intrusiveness of Data Collection
Subject and System Contact Requirements
Historical Biometric Problems
Hardware and Software Robustness
Maintenance Requirements
Susceptibility to Sabotage
Perceived Health Maladies Due to Usage
Private Information Made Available to Management
Different Types of Biometric Systems and their Characteristics
Fingerprint Systems
Data Acquisition
Enrollment Procedure and Time
Template or File Size
User Actions Required
System Response Time
Field History
Problems Experience 
Unique System Aspects
Methodology and design
Method of data collection
Analysis of the Proposed System
Use case diagram of biometric system
Diagram of Biometric Characteristics
Design Methodology
Login Table
System prototype
Interface Design using object oriented language
Skill and Cooperation required to use the System
System Implementation Evaluation
Test of Data
System Testing
User Manual
System Implementation

Summary Conclusion and Recommendation 

1.0 Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
About National Identification Management Commission (NIMC)
The National Identity Management Commission Act 2007 provides for the establishment of the NIMC, its functions, powers, establishment of the National Identity Database, assignment and use of General Multi-purpose cards, and the National Identification Number (NIN). The Act also provides the Commission with powers to make regulations connected with its functions. The NIMC Act 2007 provides the repeal of the law that created the former Department of National Civic Registration (DNCR) and the transfer of its assets and liabilities to the NIMC.

The term "biometrics" is derived from the Greek words bio (life) and metric (to measure).
Biometrics is becoming an interesting topic now in regards to computer and network security, however the ideas of biometrics have been around for many years. Possibly the first known example of biometrics in practice was a form of finger printing being used in China in the 14th century, as reported by explorer Joao de Barros. He wrote that the Chinese merchants were stamping children's palm prints and footprints on paper with ink to distinguish the young children from one another. This is one of the earliest known cases of biometrics in use and is still being used today (Joao de, 1986).

In the 1890s, an anthropologist named Alphonse Bertillion sought to fix the problem of identifying convicted criminals and turned biometrics into a distinct field of study. He developed 'Bertillonage', a method of bodily measurement which got named after him. The problem with identifying repeated offenders was that the criminals often gave different aliases each time they were arrested. Bertillion realized that even if names changed, even if a person cut his hair or put on weight, certain elements of the body remained fixed, such as the size of the skull or the length of their fingers. His system was used by police authorities throughout the world, until it quickly faded when it was discovered that some people shared the same measurements and based on the measurements alone, two people could get treated as one.

After this, the police used finger printing, which was developed by Richard Edward Henry of Scotland Yard, instead. Essentially reverting to the same methods used by the Chinese for years. However the idea of biometrics as a field of study with useful identification applications, was there and interest in it has grown.
Today we have the technology to realize the aims, and to refine the accuracy of biometric identification, and therefore the possibility of making it a viable field.

Fingerprint Identification
Fingerprinting identification known as (dactylography) or hand print identification, is the process of comparing two instance of friction ridge skin impressions, from human fingers or toes, or even the palm of the hand or sole of the foot, to determine whether this impression could have come from the same individual. The flexibility of friction ridge skin means that no two finger or palm print are ever exactly alike in every details; even two impressions recorded immediately after each other from the same hand may be slightly different. Fingerprint identification also referred to as individualization, involve an expert or expert computer system. Edward, 1880.

1.2 Motivation of Project
Biometric technology has always caught my interest because of personal experiencing at work. Where I work, we use fingerprint recognition technology in other to keep track of times we punch in and out of work. Each employee is set up with a unique Identity Card (ID) number and his/her fingerprint is associated with that unique ID number. This is how the manager of the store is able to keep track of clock in/out times. We use this system for payroll and also to keep track of employee’s hours. A database is integrated with all of the information of the employee.

At end of each week, the manager is able to print out a report that has all of the employee names, ID number, and clocking in and out time. Before being exposed to biometric technology at work, I would also see television shows that had biometric technologies such as Crime Scene Investigation (CSI). By seeing what type of technologies they used in the television show, I had always been interested about biometrics. I am motivated to do a great analysis of the use of fingerprint biometric technology, as well as security issues, benefits and disadvantages. I am also going to state some current issues and hope to implement a solution

1.3 Statement of Problem
Every citizen from the age of 16 years and above and legal residents are eligible to enroll the National Identification Number (NIN).  The researcher has identified several problems to justify the undertaking of the study among which are:
                    i.  Problem of inaccurate and duplication of a person’s demography
                  ii.  Vulnerability and inconsistency in the manual system of generating National Identity Number (NIN)
                 iii. Lack of sophisticated mechanism or security to keep track of successful enrolment.

1.4 Purpose of the Study
The National Identification Number (NIN) is a set of numbers assigned to an individual upon successful enrolment. Once issued to a person cannot be used again, (that is, it cannot be issued to another person even if the previous person is dead). It is the NIN that helps to tie all records about a person in the database and is used to check the identity verified. This project looks at how to generate the NIN and issue an ID card upon successful enrolment other includes:
                    i.    To design a computer application to handle National Identification Number
                   ii.  To increase productivity and efficiency in the process
          iii. To effectively keep track records of successful enrolment by designing a biometric identification system.
1.5 Methodology                
At work, I have seen how fingerprint biometric technology works. I created some notes that will help me with the final papers that will enhance the content. I observed and analyzed the system at work.  Some methods that I have used to find credible and strong content/information was on the web. I also want to see if I can get a copy of the handbook of Fingerprint recognition. This will help me find the necessary information I need to do the analysis and implement the solution of the specific problem.

1.6 Significance                                           
The need for an effective and qualitative secure date file information system is a major internal concern; the important role it plays in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Therefore, Biometrics Access Control System (BACS) would be of immense benefit to the development of IT world and the IT carrier, particularly in Nigeria to System Administrators (SAs) and Database Administrators (DBAs). With improve finger biometric today hackers and intruders will be denied access to operate freely.

1.7 Scope of the Study
There are different types of biometric systems: fingerprint systems, hand geometry systems, voice pattern systems, retina pattern systems, iris pattern systems, and signature dynamics systems. However, for the purpose of this study, we will limit our study to fingerprint biometric.

1.8 Limitation
This project looks at the development of a system that consist of the recording of an individual's demographic data and capturing of the ten fingerprint, head to shoulder facial picture and digital signature, which are also used to crosscheck existing data in the database before an id card is printed (issued).

1.9 Definition of Terms
        i.            False accept rate or false match rate (FAR or FMR): the probability that the system incorrectly matches the input pattern to a non-matching template in the database.

      ii.            False reject rate (FRR): the probability that the system fails to detect a match between the input pattern and a matching template in the database.

    iii.           Receiver operating characteristic or relative operating characteristic (ROC): The ROC plot is a visual characterization of the trade-off between the FAR and the FRR. In general, the matching algorithm performs a decision based on a threshold which determines how close to a template the input needs to be for it to be considered a match. If the threshold is reduced, there will be less false non-matches but more false accepts.

    iv.            Equal error rate or crossover error rate (EER or CER): the rate at which both accept and reject errors are equal. The value of the EER can be easily obtained from the ROC curve. The EER is a quick way to compare the accuracy of devices with different ROC curves.

      v.            Failure to enroll rate (FER): the rate at which attempts to create a template from an input is unsuccessful. This is most commonly caused by low quality inputs.

    vi.            Failure to capture rate (FTC): Within automatic systems, the probability that the system fails to detect a biometric input when presented correctly.
  vii.            Template capacity: the maximum number of sets of data which can be stored in the system.


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