Wednesday, 22 February 2017

Design of Computerised Data Management System For HIV Patients In Nigeria



CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.0     Preamble               
Advances in technology are revolutionizing the world, including information management, business, and government. In today's world, information technology permeates virtually every aspect of Human Endeavour, to the extent that its effective use can easily make the difference between success and failure. To be successful in today fast changing, highly competitive world, it is vital to use Information Technology effectively.



A database is an organized collection of related data, typically stored in a computer memory and accessible by possibly many concurrent users (at the Medical Reception Station) at Yusuf Dan Tsoho Memorial Hospital Kaduna. Databases are generally separated into application areas. For example, one database may contain human resource (patient and information management) data, medical data, patient data etc. These databases are generally managed by Database Management System (DBMS). A database management is set of programs that manage any number of databases. This program will manage patient information in database. The central concept of database is the collection of records or pieces of knowledge.

  • 1.1  Background of Study

The size of the population and the nation pose logistical and political challenges particularly due to the political determination of the Nigerian Government to achieve health care equity across geopolitical zones. The necessity to coordinate programs simultaneously at the federal, state and local levels introduces complexity into planning. The large private sector is largely unregulated and, more importantly, has no formal connection to the public health system where most HIV interventions are delivered. Training and human resource development is severely limited in all sectors and will hamper program implementation at all levels. Care and support is limited because existing staff are overstretched and most have insufficient training in key technical areas to provide complete HIV services.
 Dramatic improvements in survival have been seen with use of antiretroviral drugs in developed countries. Substantial resources have been pledged to treat HIV infected patients in the country, but lack the infrastructure to support the complex treatment regimen for this chronic disease. Highly active antiretroviral therapy requires daily administration of three antiretroviral drugs to maintain control of the disease and to minimize emergence of resistance. Scaling up care to thousands of patients requires good information management to ensure that each patient can be identified and traced, that his or her health status is monitored effectively, that results from critical laboratory tests are monitored and communicated to doctors, and that drug supplies will be always available in the hospital.

  • 1.1.0    The Current State Of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria

As of 2015 in Nigeria, the HIV prevalence rate among adults ages 15-49  was 3.17 percent. Nigeria has the second-largest number of people living with HIV. The HIV epidemic in Nigeria is complex and varies widely by region. In some states, the epidemic is more concentrated and driven by high-risk behaviours, while other states have more generalized epidemics that are sustained primarily by multiple sexual partnerships in the general population. Youth and young adults in Nigeria are particularly vulnerable to HIV, with young women at higher risk than young men.

  • 1.1.1    Nigeria Current HIV Statistics

(i) Over-2,600,000 Adult (15-49) rate % -3.1 Are HIV positive.
(ii) Women with HIV/AIDS-1,400,000
(iii) Children with HIV/AIDS-220,000
(iv) AIDS death-170,000
(v) Orphans due to AIDS-1,200,000.
HIV/AIDS Drugs administration has been facing some numerous problems that resolve to poor record keeping, slow in operation due to uses of manual method of information management.

  •    1.2       Motivation
 The rate at which HIV/AIDS is spreading in the society which cause the death of many patient. This is what motivates me on this research in order to provide a computerized method of data management that will help the organization in their drug administrative and information monitoring system to access patient data to a systematic full and accurate support to the organization.
          1.3          Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this project is to produce the patient data at a very fast rate thereby speeding up the decision making process. provide a computerized method of data management that will help the organization in their drug administrative and information monitoring system rather than the manual system.
             1.4  Methodology
The study started with the preliminary survey so as to establish whether there is need for a new system to be designed. The HIV/AIDS drug administrative and monitoring information system department is a storage sector of the organization where records of the entire personnel are kept.
To control and manage the records and files of the departments’ activities, There is need for security measure which will require computer to play a vital role in safeguarding the above mentioned activities. This gives an insight about the existing system that prompted the idea of a new system to he-designed with respect this. As such feasibility study of the system is carried out to find out the nature of the problem to be solved and to provide solutions to them.
The methodology involves the use of techniques such as:-
                               I.  Review of existing system
                            II.  Oral interview and
                         III.  Documentation
              1.5  The Scope of Project
This project focus on HIV/AIDS drug administration and monitoring information system in order to help the organization to store and monitor patient data in systematic, fast and computerize way of data management.
            1.6 Expected Contribution to Knowledge
1.   Identifying major problems faced by patient.
2.    To help the Doctors to take accurate drugs in the hospital.
3.  Reduced queue in Walk-in center.
4.    To incorporate proper security on the data.
5.  To replace the manual work and solve the problems already define in other to increase efficiency in the operation.
              1.7 Definition of Terms
COMPUTER:-An electronic device for storing and processing data, typically in binary form, according to instructions given to it in a variable program.
DATA:-Is a distinct piece of information, usually formatted in a special way.
RECORD: - An ordered set of fields which contain information about an entity.
AIDS:-Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
HIV:-Human immunodeficiency virus.
DRUG DESCRIPTION: - The drug description is used in identifying each store in the computer; it is also called the drug name.
DRUG CODE: - This is the number use for drug for easy identification
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY:-Is the application of computer, and telecommunications equipment to store and retrieve information.

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