Sunday, 26 February 2017

Construction of a Semiconductor Diode Module for Testing the Characteristics of Germanium Diode

Construction of a Semiconductor Diode Module for Testing the Characteristics of Germanium Diode

A module was constructed to determine the forward and reverse characteristic of germanium diode. It was constructed locally using materials such as wood, nails, plastic printed board, nut, germanium diode (0A83), carbon resistor (100Ω), variable resistor (10KΩ), connecting wires and terminals. The module was tested using the continuity test to check, and characteristics test.  The characteristic curve for both the forward and reverse bias graphs were plotted. The value of forward bias voltage was found to be 0.25V with a reverse saturation current of -7.0 A.   


Title Page
Approval page
Table of contents
1.0  Introduction
1.1 Semiconductors
1.2 Doping
1.3 Types of semiconductor
1.3.1 The N-type semiconductor
1.3.2 The P-Type semiconductor
1.4 Semiconductor In Terms of  Energy gap       
1.4.1 Valence Band
1.4.2  Conduction Band
1.4.3 Forbidden Energy Gap
1.5 Sources Of Semiconductor
1.5.1 Semiconductor Properties
1.5.2  Semiconductor diode
1.6 Aim
1.7 Objectives
1.8 Significance of study
1.9 Justification
1.10 Scope and Limitation

2.1 History of semiconductor diode
2.2 Types of semiconductor diode  
2.2.1 Zener Diode   
2.2.2 Varactor Diode 
2.2.3 Normal P-N Diode
2.2.4 Schottky Diode 
2.2.5 Avalenche Diode
2.2.6 Photo Diode  
2.2.7  Light Emitting Diode   (LED) 
2.2.8 Switching Diode
2.3   Semiconductor Diode characteristic
2.4   Application of voltage across a P-n junction
2.4.1 Reverse biasing
2.4.2  Forward biasing
2.5  Diode equation and  explanation of it parameters  
2.6  A module  
2.7 Semiconductor Diode module
2.8 Important component used in constructing semiconductor module
2.8.1  Variable Resistor
2.8.2  Carbon Resistor(100kΩ)
2.8.3  Plastic printed screen board
2.8.4  Connecting Wires
3.1 Materials
3.2 Method of construction
3.3 Dimension of the constructed module
3.4 Working principle of operation of the circuit
3.5 Procedure for forward bias condition
3.6 Procedure for reverse bias condition

4.1 Continuity Test
4.2 Forward Bias Test
4.3 Result for Forward Bias of Germanium Diode
4.4 Reverse Bias Test
4.5 Result for Reverse Bias of Germanium Diode
4.6 Forward Bias Graph
4.7 Reverse Bias Graph
4.8 IV Characteristics Curve

5.0  Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1  Discussion of result
5.2  Recommendation
5.3  Conclusion

           CHAPTER ONE

           1.0 INTRODUCTION
           1.1 Background of Studies
In chemistry, soap is a salt of fatty acid, consumer mainly uses soap as surfactant for washing, bathing and cleaning, but they are used in textile, spinning are important component of lubricants. Soaps for cleaning are obtained by treating vegetables or animal oil or fat with a strongly alkaline solution. Fat and oil are molecules of glycerol. The alkaline solution, which often called lye, although the term “lye with sodium hydroxide”, brings about a chemical reaction known as saponification.  Itopa B.G (1996)

In this reaction the triglyceride fat first hydrolyze into free fatty acids, and then this combine with the alkali to form crude soap, a amalgam of various soap salts excess fat or alkali, water, and liberated glycerol (glycerin). The glycerin, a useful by product, can remain in the soap product as softening agent, or be isolated for other uses. (Woolant  et al, 1980)

Soaps are key components of most lubricating greases, which are usually emulsion of calcium spap or lithium soap and minerals oil. Many other metallic soaps are useful, including those of aluminium, sodium and mixtures of them. Such soaps are also used as thickener to increase the viscosity of oils. In ancient time, lubricating greases were made by the addition of lime to olive oil. (John et al, 1999)
Carrot powder has become a very popular additive in soap production and skin care products as it contains high levels of carotenoids, potassium, essential nutrients, and amino acid. The nutrient as well as carrot natural antioxidant are thought to increase the skins overall tone, health and appearance from sun damage. (Thomas et al, 2003)

Carrot powder is used in natural cosmetics formulation because it repairs and tones skin, reduces wrinkles and scars, improve circulation, increases elasticity and provides the skin with better carotene, which is an antioxidant carrot powder contains the following vitamins and minerals to nourish your skin, vitamin A, B1, B2, B3, B6 ,B12 ,C , E , K. (Michael et al,2004)

           1.2 Aims and Objectives
This research project is aimed at production of bar soap using carrot powder and to determine physiochemical properties such as free caustic alkalinity. pH value, % chloride, total free alkali, texture and to compare with other  soaps in the market at large.

           1.3 Scope of the Research Project
The scope of this project is to produce bar soap from carrot powder; this soap work is expected to cover the following:
             I.  Sourcing of the carrot powder
             II. Product formulations
            III. Analysis of the product in comparison with the market standard


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