Monday, 20 February 2017

Construction Of Single Phase Automatic Change Over Switch



Construction Of Single Phase Automatic Change Over Switch project topics and material download
ABSTRACT

The need for continuous power supply and its reliability has increased rapidly over the years, especially in all those areas where uninterrupted power supply is a must. Modern systems are power dependent. Their complexity has increased as continuous information and communications are needed to control automated process, be it in industries, commercial complexes, hospitals, hotels or even modern residences. The need, as such, for independent standby power system has therefore increased manifold. The power distribution, control, monitoring and protection of standby power systems need to be integrated. Standby generator systems, for example are required to serve:-
Critical Loads- these mostly involve standby generator systems which supply power to lighting systems, air conditioning, elevators etc in Airports, Hotels and commercial complexes.
 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                                                                
Declaration                                                                                                                              
Approval                                                                                                                                 
Dedication                                                                                                                              
Acknowledgement                                                                                                                  
Table of contents                                                                                                                    
List of Abbreviation                                                                                                               
List of Figure                                                                                                                          
Abstract                                                                                                                                  

CHAPTER ONE:
Introduction      
1.1Background of Study                                                                                                 
1.2Problem Statement                                                                                                      
1.3Project Aims and Objectives                                                                                    
1.4Methodology                                                                                                            
1.5Project Motivation                                                                                                    
1.6Project outline                                                                                                           
1.7Principles of Operation Using Block Diagram                                                          

CHAPTER TWO:
Literature Review       
2.1Introduction                                                                                                                
2.2Review of Related Work                                                                                            
2.3Present Research Work                                                                                               
2.4Comparative Analysis                                                                                                 
2.5Advantages of this Project                                                                                         
2.6Area of Application                                                                                                           

CHAPTER THREE: Construction and Packaging
3.1 Introduction                                                                                                                
3.2 Construction                                                                                                               
3.2.1 Layout Diagram                                                                                                 
3.2.2 Constructional Procedures                                                                                
2.3 Construction of Circuit                                                                                      
3.3Circuit Principle of Operation                                                                                     
3.4Review of Circuit Components                                                                                  
3.4.1 Capacitor                                                                                                           
3.4.2 Resistor                                                                                                             

3.4.3 The Timer IC                                                                                                     

3.4.4 Decade counter                                                                                                 

4.5 Diode                                                                                                               

3.4.6 Relay                                                                                                                 
3.5   Pictorial View                                                                                                             
3.6  Conclusion                                                                                                                 

CHAPTER FOUR: Testing and Results
4.1 Introduction                                                                                                              
4.2 Testing Procedure                                                                                                       
4.3 Testing Equipment                                                                                                      
4.4 Packaging                                                                                                                    

CHAPTER FIVE: Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Conclusion                                                                                                                  
5.2 Recommendation                                                                                                        References                                                                                                                  Appendix                                                                                                                    


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background Of The Study
The automatic change over switch can be applied in many fields of engineering technology as it will ease the pain, time and stress of switching from one source of electrical supply to the other. In the time past we had designs such as manual change over system. This change-over switch box Separate the source between the generator and public supply, when there is Power supply Outage from public supply, someone has to go and change the line to generator. Thus when power supply is restored, someone has to put OFF the generator and then change the source line from generator to public supply.

In view of the above manual change-over switch system that involves manpower by using ones energy in starting the generator and switching over from public supply to generator and vice-versa when the  supply is restored. The importance attached to cases of operation in hospitals and air ports e.t.c makes it important for the design and construction of an automatic change-over switch which would solve the problem of manpower and the danger likely to be encountered in changeover. The electronic control monitors the incoming public supply voltage and indicates when the voltage is present or absent.


1.1  Problem Statement
The automatic changeover switch that is being designed will be a complete system with various sub-systems and components arranged and linked to function primarily as a means of manipulating the supply of electrical power to any desired load. This is typically a switching system whose function is based on the predetermined configuration of the unit. It selects the available power source without the intervention of the user, hence, ensuring the availability of supply at all times provided that at least one power source is available.

The change from one source to another can only be achieved by device or a system that determines when the change should actually take place and which source to be given preference to supply the load. This brings about the need for unique control system. The basic problem to be addressed will be how to connect two different sources of electrical power simultaneously to a single unit (the automatic changeover switch) that can serve as a link between these power sources and the load or network. Moreover, preference will be given to the power sources such that only one source supplies the load at a time and when the first (mains) source fails, the link immediately connects the second (generator) source to the load.

1.3  Project Aims
·      Design and construction of an automatic changeover switch that will switch load from the mains power supply (PHCN supply) to a back-up power supply (generator) with simplicity.
·      Construction of a circuitry that will sense power outage.
·      Measurement and evaluation
·     Interfacing, wiring and test-running
 
1.4 Methodology
The source of information used in putting up this design include
·         The information super-highway (internet)
·         Textbooks
·         Previous works and
·         General intuition

They play a major role in the actualization of this design by providing ready and accessible information at any time.

1.5       Project Motivation 
This project will provide a lasting solution to the heavy losses incurred by commercial institutions, industries, hospitals, airports, etc caused by poor power change-over. It will also be of use in our households because poor power change-over also causes damage to our household equipment e.g. electronics like television, radio, video players and electrical appliances like refrigerators, air conditioners, fans, etc. 

1.6  Project Outline
This report is outlined in the following format, chapter one contains the introduction, chapter two; the review of related works, comparative analysis and area of application, chapter three; the circuit design which consist the circuit diagram, and the circuit mathematical design analysis and principle of operation, chapter four; the consruction testing details and chapter five contains the conclusion, recommendation and references.

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