Sunday, 26 February 2017

Challenges and Prospects of Surface Drainage in Unguwar Rami Television, Kaduna South Local Government Area, Kaduna


The study is titled challenges and prospects of surface drainages in unguwar Rami Television, Kaduna south local government, Kaduna. The objectives of the study was to examine the state of surface drainage in the area, to find out the challenges in constructing drainages in the area, to assess the effect of improper drainage on the socio-economic life of the community, to suggest was of solving the problem. The study used primary and secondary sources of data collection for the study. Questionnaire was administered to 120 residents of unguwar Rami Television Kaduna south local government to seek their opinion on the challenges and prospects of surface drainages in the area. The method of data analysis employed was simple percentage. The study was able to discover that the drainages in the area are not properly constructed; improper surface drainage has affected the resident in the area i.e. flooding, odour, and health challenges. It was also discovered that the challenge in constructing drainage in the area is lack of space, lack of finance, lack of enforcement, lack of organize street layout. The remedy to the sorry state of surface drainage in the area is reconstruction and maintenance.


Title page 
Table of contents
List of tables
List of figures


1.0 Background of the study  
1.1 statement of problem
1.2 Research questions    
1.3 Aim and Objectives
1.4 Scope of the Study    
1.5 Justification of the Study


2.0 Drainage and drainage system 
2.1 Open drainage in slum
2.2 Factors responsible for open drainage in slums
2.3 Problems / challenges associated with open drainage in slums
2.4Rrole of proper planning in managing drains
2.5 Importance of drainage systems


 3.1 Study area 
3.1.1 Location 
3.1.3Geology and relief
3.1.4 Soil and vegetation
3.1.5 Drainage
3.1.6 Economic activities
3.1.7 Population and people
3.2 Research methodology
3.2.1 Introduction
3.2.2 Data requirements  
3.2.3 Types and sources of data  
3.2.4 Method of data collection
3.2.5 Sampling technique
3.2.6 Reconnaissance survey
3.2.7 Method of data analysis


Presentation of data   


5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion  
5.3  Recommendation
5.3.1 Short term measures
5.3.2 Long term measures
5.4 References

The majority of the world’s population lives in the so-called “developing” countries – many of them living in dire conditions in the slums to be found in most towns and cities. A particular problem associated with these slums is poor drainage.  Many slums are informal settlements that have come about through land invasion and lack proper planning. Slums arise through a combination of: rapid population growth (both through high birth rates as well as large immigration), weak local government (resulting in inadequate planning and management) insufficient investment (perhaps a consequence of a small tax base or/or high levels of corruption) and a lack of skilled personnel (both professional as well as maintenance). 

It is of concern that whilst the world is on track to meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target on drinking water, it does not look set to meet the target on sanitation (to halve the number of people without access). Based on current trends, the total world population without improved sanitation in 2015 will still be a massive 2.4 billion (WHO, 2008). The practice of urban drainage in developing countries encounters more serious problems than those of developed countries, because urban development occurs under more difficult socio-economic, technological and climatic conditions. 

Developing counties experience accelerated urbanization without adequate investment in infrastructure, and against a background of deficient public services for water treatment, collection and treatment of foul sewage, garbage collection, urban drainage, transport and health. Urban concentrations have environmental consequences in the form of urban flooding and pollution of water courses, soil and air. Settlements are established in inappropriate areas such as those originally set aside for environmental preservation and on steep hillsides and areas liable to flooding.

 Whilst not all sanitation need be water-borne, the need to cater for greywater (domestic wastewater) in addition to storm water in high density urban areas makes it important that more serious consideration be given to providing adequate drainage. No MDG target has yet been set for drainage; it is apparently not acknowledged to be a problem. “The basic underlying purpose of any drainage system is to keep people from water, to keep water from the people and to protect and enhance the environment while doing so.” (Thomas and Dedo, 2002).

Urban drainage is defined to include two types of fluids: wastewater and storm water (Butler and Davies 2000). Wastewater is water that after use for life support, industrial processes, or life enhancement must be collected and disposed of appropriately to prevent nuisances and pollute conditions from developing in urban areas. Storm water is runoff produced by precipitation. Both wastewater and storm water must be considered during urban drainage system planning. Historically the two waters have either been combined into a single conduit (i.e., combined sewers), or have been kept separate during collection and disposal (i.e., separate sewers).

 During the rains, part of the rain water flows on surface and part of it percolates through the soil mass as gravitational water until it reaches to the ground water. Some water is retained in the pores of the soil mass and on the surface of the soil particles which cannot be drained by normal gravitational methods and this water is termed as held water. It is required that the surface water from the carriageway and shoulder should effectively be drained off without allowing it percolate to subgrade. 

The surface water from adjoining land should be prevented from entering the roadway. The side drains should have sufficient capacity and longitudinal slopes to carry away all the surface water collected. Also in waterlogged areas special precaution should be taken. There are many such roads which are not having the proper drainage system. This causes the failure of the roads due to many reasons like increase in moisture content, decrease in strength, mud pumping, formation of waves and corrugations, stripping of bitumen, cutting of edges of pavement, frost action etc. (Patil, 2011).

Successful drainage and maintenance depends on early detection of problems before conditions require major action. Signs of drainage problems requiring attention include: puddles on the surface area, poor surface flow, slope erosion, clogged ditches, pavement edge raveling, preliminary cracking, pavement pumping, and surface settlement (Charlotte, 2013).

These signs indicate the start of failures which occur as soil particles are gradually washed away and as excess water seeps into the roadway reducing the load carrying ability of the sub grade. Major failures caused by poor drainage conditions include washouts, slides, slip outs, road and pavement breakup and flood damage (Nyuyo, 1993). 

From a drainage point of view, (Nyuyo, 1993) observes that pavement maintenance consists largely of sealing cracks, patching, and repairing deteriorated surfaces. It is a cost effective treatment to extend the life of the pavement before more expensive maintenance will be required. Stagnant water on or beside the roadway is a common sight of rainfall downpour yet it is a sign of future problems. Water soaks into the road structure unless the soil around and under it is relatively waterproof. The purpose of drainage design is to control the surface runoff and to control the free water in the sub base and sub grade (Mwai, 2001).

Surface drainage encompasses all means by which surface water is removed from the road. The gradation of aggregates and bituminous mixed should be adjusted in a way that water is not allowed to percolate into the compacted road surface. This is done by suitably choosing the wearing course which is adequately impermeable and providing requisite cross-slope to the top surface of the road so as to drain water quickly. 

Investigation shows that bituminous mixes recommended for road construction for various wearing courses are adequately impermeable to water when constructed. The entry of water in this course of the road occurs when cracks begin to appear on the road surface. For a good surface drainage system, shoulders, cross slope, longitudinal slope and longitudinal channels should be provided during road construction (Dawson, 1998).
The practice of urban drainage in developing countries encounters more serious problems than those of developed countries, because urban development occurs under more difficult socio-economic, technological and climatic conditions. Developing counties experience accelerated urbanization without adequate investment in infrastructure, and against a background of deficient public services for water treatment, collection and treatment of foul sewage, garbage collection, urban drainage, transport and health.

This is the case with Ungwan rami an urban slum characterized by unplanned buildings, improper sewages, garbage which poses serious threat to human health and the environment. The sight of open surface drains running through streets and even some houses is a problem that shouldn’t be taken lightly. It is against this backdrop that this study seek to find out reasons that contributes to the challenges of improper drains.

In view of the above problem the research would seek to answer the following questions.
1. Are there surface drainages in the area?
2. Are they properly constructed?
3. How does the surface drainage affect life in the area?
4. What are some of the problems pose by the drainage in the area, and what are the solutions.

The aim of this study is to examine the challenges and prospects of surface drainages in unguwar Rami, television Kaduna south local government area of Kaduna state. To achieve this aim, the following objectives are considered.

i. To examine the state of surface drainage in the area.
ii.To find out the challenges of constructing surface drainage in the area.
iii.To assess the effects of improper surface drainage on socio-economic life of the community.
iv.To suggest possible ways of solving the problems.

The challenges of surface drainage or urban drainage has other-wise called, is a very wide field of study. But for the purpose of this research work, the researcher will examine the challenges and the prospect of surface drainage in Unguwar Rami Television, Kaduna South local Government area of Kaduna State.

One of the observable impacts of rapid growing urbanization and economic development in emerging cities of developing nations is witnessed in drainage problem connected to poor sanitation. This study therefore mainly dwells on the state of surface drainage system within the study area with respect to provision possible solution.

 This research has also concentrated on the effects of water and how it affects the lives of the people in the study area due to poor drainage. It has also look at the various steps that should be taken so as to ensure sufficient drainage system. Many of the urban dwellers in developing world do not have good or proper drainage system. It is against this background that this work attempts to evaluate the surface drainage challenges in the study area with view to providing detailed information and statistics for decision and policy makers and also suggesting better ways of constructing proper drainage system in the area. Hence a justification of this study. 


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