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An Insight Into the Sub Surface Geology of Northern Nigeria for Groundwater Exploitation

Download complete project materials on An Insight Into the Sub Surface Geology of Northern Nigeria for Groundwater Exploitation. Chapter one, two, three to five.



Geo­-electrical studies provide useful information on the possible methods for minerals exploration on ground water investigation. In the past there has been a general assumption that ground water is ever abundant and readily exploitable. However, recent studies have shown that special care and skills are needed to determine the location for development of groundwater. Direct current resistivity method is a common tool for surveying water in arid area. It is well known that this method can be successfully employed for ground water investigation (Ahilan, 2011).

Observation shows that ground water comes from rain sheet and hail that soak into the ground and become the groundwater responsible for the spring, well and boreholes (Oseji et al.,2005). Ground water and other mineral resources such as hydrocarbons and solid minerals are of great abundance in Nigeria. The true riches of any country depend on it ability to provide for it dwellers potable water as one of the major resources’ that a citizen of any nation can benefit from (Alile, 2008). This is so because water is a free course of nature. It is a gift to mankind.

Water is one of the major determinants of economic development, water has found its usefulness in every human Endeavour such as manufacturing industry, agricultural industry, transportation industry and construction industry, home usage and so on (Joel Emmanuel, 2012). Because of the important of this resources new technology have been developed in search of this resources. The search for groundwater has become quite intense in human history.

This is due to the fact that government is unable to meet the ever increasing water demand; Inhabitant have had to look for alternative source such as surface streams, shallow wells and boreholes (N.K Abdullahi et al; 2013). Electrical resistivity method of geogphysical techniques happens to be the most preferred method in ground water potential. Vertical electrical sounding (VES) is a common method to measure vertical alteration of electrical resistivity.

The method has been recognized to be more suitable for hydrogeological survey (Kelly and Stanislar, 1993).The advent of technology has made the quest for water for all purpose in life to drift from ordinary search for surface water to prospecting for steady and reliable boreholes. In Nigeria presently boreholes have rescued the citizens from acute shortage of water (Alile; 2010).

Underground water is characterized by a certain number of parameters which are determined by geophysical method such as electrical resistivity methods, gravity methods etc., but for this research work, the application of electrical resistivity survey method was used. The most usual parameters are the porosity. The permeability, the transmitivity and conductivity (Alile; 2010)


The aim of the research work is to have an insight into the sub surface geology of the study area for groundwater exploitation.

The objectives of the research are;

  1. Determine the overburden thickness.
  2. The resistivity of geoelectric layers present in the study area
  3. Locate potential site for groundwater and proper setting of borehole and to delineate fractured zone in the sub-surface.


  1. To analyze the characteristics structure, of subsurface in the study area.
  2. To delineate zones suitable for groundwater abstraction in the study area.


The study area is Kaduna golf course, Kaduna State, in north western Nigeria located in the humid wet dry tropics of the guinea savannah. Geologically, the area under investigation lies within the crystalline complex. In the study area, the average rainfall is 135mm per annum and is distributed within four to eight months, usually from march to October (Eduvie et al, 2012).

Almost 50% of  Nigeria is covered by crystalline rocks and about 90% of this belongs to the basement complex which is thought to be mostly Precambrian in age (Falconer el al 19110. Trustwel and (cape (1963) observed that the dominant rock types in the crystalline basement complex of Nigeria are migmatite and granite.


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