Wednesday, 11 January 2017

Isolation and Identification of Some Pathogenic Bacteria and Helminths From Cattle Ranch Drainage Water Within Kaduna Metropolis


Isolation and identification of some pathogenic bacteria and helminths from cattle ranch drainage water within kaduna metropolis.


CHAPTER ONE

    1.0 INTRODUCTION

Fecal waste from domestic livestock such as cattle, swine and poultry raised in contaminated facilities is excreted onto the floors of the animal stalls or pens.Accumulation of this fecal material acts as a collection basin for pathogens which may be spread between animals (Taylor etal., 2001).


Disposal of domestic livestock fecal material may comprise of storage in lagoons or waste piles with the ultimate application to the soil surface and incorporation into the soil.These fecal wastes may also enter water systems by the directcontamination of the water or through the seepage or surface runoff (Graczyk et al., 2000).

In the rearing of domestic livestock on range orpasture, manure may not be concentrated in one area as with confined livestock. These animals can also contaminate water by defecation in unprotected surface water, through surface runoff and as a resultof seepage of water through soil that contains an excessive amount of animal feces (Larsenetal., 2004).

The potential for this environmental pollution is present and growing because of the concentration of production into fewer large-scale units, not the increase in total numbers of animals (Donham, 2000).Large-scale production facilities have the potential to cause serious environmental contamination as a result of the amount of manure produced at one site
.


Infectious diseases of microbiological etiology, originating in man andother animals, can be transmitted through waters that receive animal wastes. Thus, human andlivestock exposure to surface or groundwater contaminated with fecal bacteria is an importantwater quality concern (Stoddard etal., 2003).After land application, fecal organisms are largely retained at or near the soil surface,thereby creating greater potential for pollution of surface water via runoff.

Rainfall intensity and recurrent rainfall have been studied with respect to their affect onfecal coliform release. Members of two groups, coliforms and fecal streptococci, areused as indicators of fecal contamination. Although they are generally not harmful themselves,they indicate the possible presence of pathogenic bacteria, viruses and protozoan that also livein human and animal digestive systems (USEPA, 2008).

Measurement of the quantity of fecalcoliform bacteria is one of the most commonly used methods to establish the quality of natural waters (Valiela etal., 1991). Fecal coliform bacteria are a subgroup of total coliform bacteriaand are fecal-specific in origin. Their ability to grow at an elevated temperature (44.5oC)separates the fecal coliforms from the total coliforms and makes it a more accurate indicator offecal contamination by warm-blooded animals.

For recreational waters, the fecal coliform group was the primary bacteria indicator untilrelatively recently, when EPA began recommending E. coli and enterococci as better indicatorsof health risk from water contact (USEPA, 2008). However, some states, including Louisiana,have not adopted the use of E. coli as the indicator organism as a replacement for fecalcoliforms (USEPA, 2002). In states that have not adopted E. coli as the indicator organism,fecal coliforms are generally monitored to determine whether the water meets state waterquality standards (USEPA, 2008).


Fecal coliforms are traditionally analyzed using the membrane filtration (MF) or mostprobable number (MPN) test. Both of these methods are labor and materials intensive, and require precise control of laboratory conditions and a high degree of technical skill to performand interpret results (Elmund etal., 2009). A relatively new method, the Quanti-Tray-Colilertsystem, was designed to measure E. coli and totalcoliforms simultaneously (Elmund etal., 2009). Colilert is USEPA-approved for quantifyingE. coli and total coliforms and is included in Standard Methods for the Examination of Waterand Wastewater. This method is much simpler to inoculate, requiring lessmanipulation, and thus has less chance for human error.


One of the most important issues related to public health is parasiticdiseases. Many diseases are zoonotic, emerging or re-emergingzoonoses, prevalent and difficult to control (Nithiuthia etal., 2004). Some of these diseasessuch as leishmaniasis, malaria, Chagas disease and so on are vectorbornecausing by pathogens transmitted by arthropods (Patz etal.,2000).


Someothers are food- or water-borne so that contaminated food or watermay transmit and spread a pathogenic agent or a disease (Macpherson etal.,2000). Watercan be considered as a major source of human infection either directly or by indirect contamination via foods or vegetables prepared fromcontaminated water (Slifko etal., 2000). Infectious diseases caused by bacteria, virusesand parasites including protozoa, nematodes, trematodes or flukes,cestodes or tapeworms are the main contaminant agents for drinkingwater that should be eliminated (Fayer etal., 2001).


One category of waterbornediseases includes those caused by the contamination of the drinkingwater by human or animal feces infected with the etiological agents ofsuch diseases (Gasana, 2014). Helminthiases represent important public healthproblems with great economic impact in tropical and subtropicalcountries (Nithiuhia etal., 2004).


Nematodes include ascarids, pinworms, hookworms,strongylids, capillarids, flukes such as schistosomes and liver flukes,and tapeworms like the beef and pork tapeworms and cystic andalveolar hydrated ones are examples of waterborne parasitic diseases (Pozio, 2003). Waterborne zoonotic helminths may be spread directly fromanimals to humans or humans to animals through water that is eitheringested or that consists of forms with ability of skin penetration (Nithiuthia etal.,2004).


Antimicrobials have played an indispensable role in decreasing illness and death associated withinfectious diseases in animals and humans. However, selective pressure exerted by antimicrobialdrug used has also been the major driving force behind the emergence and spread of drug resistance.

            1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT
Sewagesludge and agricultural wastes are recycled to soil with the aim of improving soil condition andfertility (Nicholson et al.., 2000). However, untreated sewage sludge may contain a range ofmicroorganisms pathogenic to man, including bacteria such as (Salmonella,shigella,andE. coli), virus particles, protozoa such as (Cryptosporidium) and other intestinal parasites ( Helminths) without suitable treatment, there is potential for pathogens present in sludge recycled to land towash into adjacent surface waters, contaminate crops (fresh produce is of particular concern).

            1.2  JUSTIFIATION
Improperly managed livestock wastes can lead to fecal contamination of waters receiving agricultural runoff. The danger to humans lies in the possibility of these fecal organisms entering water and food supplies. Ground water and surface waters may harbor pathogens originating from animal fecal deposits. Contaminated water may also infect edible shellfis.


Standards established by the Environmental Protection Agency require that the fecal coliform (FC) count not exceed 100 /l00 ml, for bathing water and, for shellfish harvesting water. E
scherichia coli, is a common microbial flora of the gastrointestinal tract of human beings and vertebrate animals (Arshadet al.,2006). Apart from being shed in faeces, its presence has also been detectedin soil, plants and in water where it could serve as one of the factors affecting animal and humanhealth.


It is estimated that 1-4% of all cultured bacteria of the colon are
E. coli. CommensalE. colistrains are thought to maintain the physiological milieu of the gut and support digestion, as wellas defend against enteric pathogens (Sawantet al.,2007). Faece pollution of water and food is an environmental problem of increasing importance.Identification of individual host sources of faecalE. coli such as human, domestic animals and wildanimals is a prerequisite to the formulation of remediation plans (Cantonet al.,2009).

           1.3 AIM;
To Isolate and identify some pathogenic bacteria and helminthes from cattle ranch drainage water within Kaduna metropolis


          1.4  OBJECTIVES;
The specific objectives are as follows:
         To isolate and identify some pathogenic bacteria from cattle ranch waste water and.
         To identify some helminthes from cow dung.
         To carry out the antimicrobial sensitivity test on bacteria isolate.
 

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