Monday, 19 December 2016

The Economic Burden Of Malaria In Nigeria (M.sc Full Project)



ABSTRACT
This paper studies the economic burden of malaria in Nigeria. Today, malaria is the most common cause of deaths in Nigeria, accounting for 20% of the total death rate, the most cause of school absenteeism and decreased labour productivity.

The project was made up of five chapters with the first containing: the introduction, statement of problem, purpose and objectives of the study. The second chapter contains the review of related theories and the current literature of the study. The third chapter contains the method used in collecting and analyzing information. The fourth chapter deals with data presentation and analysis while the last chapter presents summary, conclusion and recommendation.



TABLES OF CONTENT
Title page    
Certification Page 
Declaration 
Dedication 
Acknowledgement
Tables of contents 
List of Tables  
Abstract      

 CHAPTER ONE
 INTRODUCTION
1.1   Background to the Study 
1.2   Statement of the Problem
1.3   Research Questions  
1.4  Research Objectives 
1.5 Significance of the Study  
1.6  Scope and Limitations of the study 
1.7 Chapterisation 
                     
CHAPTER TWO
2.1 Conceptual literature
2.1.1 Malaria
2.1.2 Signs and symptoms
2.1.3 Complications
2.1.4  Diagnosis of malaria
2.1.5 Microscopic diagnosis
2.1.6 Antigen Detection
2.1.7 Serology
2.1.8 Economic burden
2.2 Empirical framework
      
                                  
CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH MEDTHODOLOGY
3.1  introduction
3.2 Study area
3.3 Sources and methods of data collection
3.4 Population
3.5 data Analysis
3.5.1  Production function model

CHAPTER FOUR 
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Presentation and analysis of data
4.3 Testing the validity of the model
            CHAPTER FIVE
5.1  Introduction
5.2 Summary
5.3 Conclusions
5.4 Recommendation
     References
 
 CHAPTER ONE                   
1.1  Background of the study
 Malaria is a life threatening disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. In 2015, 95 countries and territories had ongoing malaria transmission. About 3.2 billion people –almost half of the world population are at risk of malaria. Sub-Saharan Africa carries a disproportionately high share of the global malaria burden. In 2015, the region was home to 88% of malaria cases and 90% of malaria deaths. According to World health organisation estimates, there were 214 million cases of malaria in 2015 and 438 000 deaths..(WHO 2015).
 Malaria and poverty are intimately connected. As T. H. Weller,(1958) a Nobel laureate in medicine, noted, ‘‘It has long been recognized that a malarious community is an impoverished community.’’ Weller could have said the same for malarious countries.  Malaria is most intractable for countries in the poorest continent, Africa. The only parts of Africa free of malaria are the northern and southern extremes, which have the richest countries on the continent. India, the country with the greatest number of poor people in the world, has a serious malaria problem. Haiti has the worst malaria in the Western Hemisphere, and it is the poorest.
According to the World Bank, Malaria accounted for an estimated 35 million Disability-Adjusted Live Years(DALYs)  lost in Africa in 1990 due to ill health and premature deaths This loss was again estimated   at 39 million DALYs in 1998 and 36 million DALYs in 1999. Furthermore, while malaria contributed 2.05% to the total global deaths in 2000, it was responsible for 9.0% of all deaths in Africa (WHO, 2002). The World Health Organisation also estimated that the total cost of malaria to Africa was US$ 1.8 billion in 1995 and US$ 2 billion in 1997 (WHO, 1997).
 The Nigeria institute of Medical Research, NIMR, Lagos, has said that not less than 51 million Nigerians, equivalent to 30 percent of the population, tested positive to the malaria parasite in 2015. The Nigerian national statistics shows that malaria accounts for 60% of hospital out-patient visits, 25% infant deaths, 30% of all under-five deaths and 11% of maternal mortality..(Gabriel O. 2016).     Nigeria’s 51 million out of the total 214 million cases around the world represents 24% of the worldwide malaria burden in the year 2015. Thus, 30% of Nigerians suffered from debilitating effects of malaria in a single year.
 The effect of malaria on people of all ages is quite immense. It is however very serious among pregnant women and children because they have less immunity. When malaria infection is not properly treated in pregnant women, it can cause anaemia and also lead to miscarriages, stillbirths, underweight babies and maternal deaths. Also, frequent cerebral malaria can lead to disabling neurological sequelae. Further, malaria in school children is a major cause of absenteeism in endemic countries. It is estimated that about 2% of children who recover from cerebral malaria suffer brain damage including epilepsy. Hence, among young children, frequent episodes of severe malaria may negatively impact on their learning abilities and educational attainment. This is a threat to human capital accumulation, which constitutes a key factor in economic development.(Felix A, Kwadoh A, 2003)
 The debilitating effects of malaria on adult victims are very much disturbing. In addition to time and money spent on preventing and treating malaria. In addition to time and money spent on preventing and treating malaria, it causes considerable pain and weakness, and results in reduction in the working ability of its victims. The adverse impact of the disease on household production and gross domestic product can be substantial. The ubiquity of malaria in some regions leads not only to high prevention and treatment costs and loss of labour, but also to modifications of social and economic behaviour, with potentially serious consequences for economic growth and development. Malaria therefore is not only a public health problem but also an economic developmental problem.
 At the national level, apart from the negative effect of lost productivity on the major sectors of the economy, malaria has negative effects on the growth of tourism, investments and trade especially in endemic regions


1.2   Statement of the problem

The malaria burden is a challenge to human development. It is both a cause and consequence of under-development. In Nigeria, malaria is the number one cause of morbidity accounting for 60% of out- patient. It is also the leading cause of mortality in children under five years, a significant cause of adult morbidity, and the leading cause of workdays lost due to illness.
Households in Africa spend between $2 and $25 on malaria treatment and between $15 and $20 on prevention each month with consequent loss of resources. The human and economic costs associated with declining quality of life, consultations, treatments, hospitalizations and other events related to malaria are enormous and often lead to low productivity and lost incomes. The amount spent on malaria in terms of prevention, treatment and loss of productivity can compromise a significant portion of the annual income of poor households.(Obinna N, Nkoli U, 2013)
Annual economic growth in countries with high malaria transmission has historically been lower than in countries without malaria. Economists believe that malaria is responsible for a ‘growth penalty' of up to 1.3% per year in some African countries. When compounded over the years, this penalty leads to substantial differences in GDP between countries with and without malaria and severely restrains the economic growth of the entire region.  (Roll Back Malaria: Economic costs of malaria, 2011)
 Despite its devastating effects, the importance of a malaria-free environment in promoting economic development and poverty reduction has not been fully appreciated in Nigeria. Perhaps the reason may be that the impact of the burden of malaria has not been demonstrated in quantitative terms to convince politicians, policy makers, programme managers and development partners to devote the needed attention to this dreadful disease. The study is an attempt to provide this needed information.

 1.3Research questions
The research study seeks to provide answers to the following research question

(i)  What is the macro-economic effect of malaria in Nigeria as it relates to Gross Domestic Product.

1.4   Research objectives
The main objective of this research is to determine the economic burden of malaria in Nigeria. More specifically, the objective of this research study is :

(i) to estimate the impact of the burden of malaria on economic growth through Gross domestic product
{ii) to estimate average malaria morbidity
(iii) to determine the relationship between initial income, life expectancy, secondary schooling age and labour force on Gross domestic product.

 (1.5) Significance of the study

 A few studies have been carried out on the economic burden of malaria; however none of those researches in recent times has focused on the macroeconomic effects of malaria on gross domestic product.
 About 50million Nigerians had at least an episode of malaria last year, thus leading to decreased life expectancy, loss of productivity, decrease in human capital development, increased household health expenditure thus decrease in savings and then investment.
This study would investigate the economic burden of malaria. Both theoretical and empirical information would be provided by the study on completion. This information would be useful to government, stakeholders, policy makers, donor agencies and entrepreneurs and all the general public. Moreover very useful information would be provided for researchers, academicians and professionals in the study area.
 

This research study may also stimulate further research study into the topic area. Also, the department of Economics of the Kaduna state University will benefit immensely from this research because it will further add to the available economic knowledge in the department.


This research will provide both practical and knowledge based benefit to those interested in embarking on further research on this topic area. Moreover, the research will be of great benefit to the researcher, since it will help in fulfilling one of the basic requirements for the award of a post graduate degree in his programme of study (public sector economics).

1.6 Scope and limitations of the study

 The scope of this research study is to investigate the economic burden of malaria in Nigeria. This study would attempt to estimate the impact of the burden of malaria on economic growth.
This research study might encounter certain limitations. Some of the expected major limitations are:

(i)Time constraint: The time allocated by the school calendar for carrying out research study is limited
(ii) Financial Constraint: it is a common practice in Nigeria that academic research is sponsored by the student. Thus its expected, that I would sponsor this current research, however the finances available are limited.
(iii) Constraint in data collection: there are few data available in the topic area.

1.7 Chapterisation

 The chapters of this research study were arranged according to the following sequence and pattern.
The chapter one deals with preliminary aspects of the research study. It provides detail overview of the research study. It started with the introduction which gives detailed background to the study and also describes the problem which the research seeks to address. It also contains the research questions designed by the researchers to guide the research process. Also, contained in the chapter one include: the research objectives, the significance of the study, the scope and expected limitation of the research study.

The chapter two of this research deals with the literature review. It started with a brief introduction and continues with the sub-themes for the review of literature related to the research study. It also made provision for conceptualisation and theoretical framework for the study.
The chapter three contains the research methodology. Under this chapter, the research design used for this research, population of the research target area, sample size, instrumentation, statistical tools to be used for analysis and how data would be validated was discussed.
 The chapter four of this research, the data collected for the research would be analyzed using the most effective statistical tool. Results would be presented using tables and other relevant chart. Chapter four also discusses findings as they relate to the research questions.
Chapter five of this research study, contains the summary of the research, the conclusion and recommendations of the research study. It also contains areas for future research.


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