Saturday, 24 December 2016

Project Proposal On Determination of Total Aflatoxin In Beans (Project Proposal)



CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION OF THE STUDY
Mycotoxins are fungal toxic metabolites which naturally contaminate food and feed. Aflatoxins (AFs), a kind of mycotoxins, are the main toxic secondary metabolites of some Aspergillus moulds such as Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and the rare Aspergillus nomius (Ali et al., 2005, Alcaide-Molina et al., 2009). Such toxins can be separated into aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, B2a and G2a. Its order of toxicity is B1 > G1 > B2 > G2. Letters ‘B’ and ‘G’ refer to its blue and green fluorescence colors produced by these compounds under UV light. Numbers 1 and 2 indicate major and minor compounds, respectively (Weidenbörner, 2001; Hussein & Brasel, 2001). A. flavus only produces B aflatoxins, while A. parasiticus and A. nomius also produce G aflatoxins (Alcaide-Molina et al., 2009).


Aflatoxins are produced on various grains and nuts, e.g., corn, sorghum, cottonseed, peanuts, pistachio nuts, copra, cereals, fruits, oilseeds, dried fruits, cocoa, spices and beer in the field and during storage. AFs occur mainly in hot and humid regions where high temperature and humidity are optimal for moulds growth and toxins production (Ventura et al., 2004; Zollner & Mayer-Helm, 2006).

Its presence is enhanced by factors as stress or damage to the crop due to drought before harvest, insect activity, soil type and inadequate storage conditions (Alcaide-Molina et al., 2009). Aflatoxins, when ingested, inhaled or adsorbed through the skin, have carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, teratogenic and mutagenic effects in human and animals (rats, ferrets, ducks, trout, dogs, turkeys, cattle and pigs) (Anwar-Ul_Haq & Iqbal, 2004) even at very small concentrations.

When aflatoxins B1 is ingested by cows, it is transformed into its hydroxylated product, AFs M1 and M2. Such aflatoxins is secreted in the milk and is relatively stable during milk pasteurization, storage, and preparation of various dairy products (Stroka & Anklam, 2002).
Among the more than 300 known mycotoxins, aflatoxins represent the main threat worldwide. After 1975 there has been an increased concern about the possibility of the presence of carcinogenic mold metabolites, particularly aflatoxins in food and animal feed products. Although aflatoxins are regulated in more than 80 countries, their legislation is not yet completely harmonized at the international level (Cucci et al., 2007).

1.2 AIMS OF THE STUDY
The aim of the test is to determine the total aflatoxin in beans using enzymes linked immunosorbent assay 

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