Saturday, 24 December 2016

Project Proposal On Determination Of Total Aflatoxin In Cowpea


Project Proposal On Determination Of Total Aflatoxin In Cowpea
CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION OF THE STUDY

Mycotoxins are fungal toxic metabolites which naturally contaminate food and feed. Aflatoxins (AFs), a kind of mycotoxins, are the main toxic secondary metabolites of some Aspergillus moulds such as Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and the rare Aspergillus nomius (Ali et al., 2005, Alcaide-Molina et al., 2009). Such toxins can be separated into aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, B2a and G2a. Its order of toxicity is B1 > G1 > B2 > G2. Letters ‘B’ and ‘G’ refer to its blue and green fluorescence colors produced by these compounds under UV light. Numbers 1 and 2 indicate major and minor compounds, respectively

(Weidenbörner, 2001; Hussein & Brasel, 2001). Aspergillus. flavus only produces B aflatoxins, while Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus nomius also produce G aflatoxins (Alcaide-Molina et al., 2009). Aflatoxins are produced on various grains and nuts, e.g., corn, sorghum, cottonseed, peanuts, pistachio nuts, copra, cereals, fruits, oilseeds, dried fruits, cocoa, spices and beer in the field and during storage. AFs occur mainly in hot and humid regions where high temperature and humidity are optimal for moulds growth and toxins production (Ventura et al., 2004; Zollner & Mayer-Helm, 2006).


Its presence is enhanced by factors as stress or damage to the crop due to drought before harvest, insect activity, soil type and inadequate storage conditions (Alcaide-Molina et al., 2009). Aflatoxins, when ingested, inhaled or adsorbed through the skin, have carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, teratogenic and mutagenic effects in human and animals (rats, ferrets, ducks, trout, dogs, turkeys, cattle and pigs) (Anwar-Ul_Haq & Iqbal, 2004) even at very small concentrations. When aflatoxins B1 is ingested by cows, it is transformed into its hydroxylated product, AFs M1 and M2. Such aflatoxins is secreted in the milk and is relatively stable during milk pasteurization, storage, and preparation of various dairy products (Stroka & Anklam, 2002).
Among the more than 300 known mycotoxins, aflatoxins represent the main threat worldwide. After 1975, there has been an increased concern about the possibility of the presence of carcinogenic mould metabolites, particularly aflatoxins in food and animal feed products. Although aflatoxins are regulated in more than 80 countries, their legislation is not yet completely harmonized at the International level (Cucci et al., 2007

1.2 AIMS OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study is to determine the total aflatoxin in cowpea using enzymes linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of this study is
          i.  To find out the effect of aflatoxin in cowpea.
        ii.   To know the spread of aflatoxin in cowpea.
      iii.   To minimize aflatoxin contamination to improve health and enhance income

1.4 ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE AFLATOXIN ILFESTATION
i.  Aflatoxin is produced when the Aspergillus fungus attacks grains.
ii. Insect damage increases fungal growth and aflatoxin contamination..
iii. Drought and high temperatures increase aflatoxin production so do bad harvest, postharvest, and storage practices.
iv. Moisture content of grain.
v.  Relative humidity.
  
1.5 HOW DOES AFLATOXIN AFFECT COWPEA?
        i.            Aflatoxin-contaminated feed and food causes a decrease in productivity in humans and animals and is sometimes fatal.
      ii.             Aflatoxin-infected crops are forced into low value markets or destroyed.
    iii.             Aflatoxin damages our health and business opportunities.


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