Saturday, 17 December 2016

Isolation of Salmonella Species From Fresh Milk Sold in Some Parts of Kaduna Metropolis (PROJECT PROPOSAL)



CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
In general, milk has been described as a nearly perfect food because it contains an essential nutrients required by the body in appropriate proportion. However, it is very efficient vehicle for bringing a large number of people into contact with potential microbial hazards, (Jordan, 2007). Bacterial organisms which may gain entry into milk can multiply and cause spoilage, rendering raw or processed milk unsuitable for human consumption due to rancidity, musty odour, or toxin production (Nanuetal., 2007).


These organisms in milk indicate inadequate milking procedures, poor storage condition, or unhygienic productions (Gran et al., 2003; Girmaud et al., 2009). The presence of pathogenic bacteria which may not be associated with spoilage of milk such as Salmonella spp. Brucellaspp, Mycobacteriumbovis, Listeriamonocytogenes and Campylobacterjejuni can render raw and processed milk unsafe for human consumption, (Nanuetal., 2007).



Salonellosis is the most common food-borne bacterial disease worldwide (Forshell and Wierup, 2006). There have been an increased outbreaks of human salmonellas is in most parts of the world resulting from animal infections, (Forshell and Wierup, 2006). The prevention and control of animal salmonellosis has become a global issue, as this has been established as the main sources of outbreaks in human (EFSA, 2006).


Food-borne salmonellosis has remained a neglected zoonosis in Nigeria and other developing countries of the world, despite an upsurge of cases reported. Raw milk and milk products are increasingly becoming important sources of human infection with salmonella. Food vehicle implicated in most food-borne disease outbreaks in often consumed or discarded before clinical symptoms developed in the exposed individual (Fontaine et al., 1980). The screening of milk and other dairy products against pathogenic organisms will play a vital role in human infection.

1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Salmonella remains the leading cause of human food borne disease in many countries (D’Aoust et al., 2000; WHO 2002; Patrick et al., 2004). In the world, the number of food borne infection, hospitalization and deaths are estimated from multiple data sources, for example, information from French surveillance systems and other sources of morbidity and mortality due to food borne infectious diseases in the last decade of the 20th century, tanked salmonella as the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality (Vaillant et al., 2005)


1.2 JUSTIFICATION
There were high association between the prevalence of Salmonella in milk directly from the udder of cows, the use of stream water from the procession of milk and lack of washing the udder of cows before milking. These would have influences the occurrence of Salmonellaspp in milk. (Nanuetal., 200).

1.3 AIM
To isolate Salmonella spp from different fresh milk sample sold in some parts of Kaduna metropolis


1.4 OBJECTIVES
i.   To isolate Salmonella spp from different fresh milk sold.
ii.  To determine the total bacterial count in the milk sample.
iii   To characterized Salmonella spp from different fresh mi


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