This study appraised the impact of Kaduna agricultural development project (KADP) on the socio economic well being of farmers in Lere Local Government Area Kaduna State Nigeria. It is believed that this type of project most have effects either positive or negative any were they are executed. In this work the positive benefit were considered. The analyses include the use of Standard deviation, Logit regression, Chi Square, Percentage computation and tables were used to analyzed and summarized data for presentation and discussion.
The study found out that there are channels of input distribution and difference in the adoption of new technology because of difference in education level, social status, income and dependants. It also found out that the activities of KADP has impacted on lives of the farmers because there is improvement in their living standard, housing conditions, rise in their socio-economic activities and income accumulation. The result obtained revealed that 85% the services provided by KADP has impacted on the farmers by increasing output of their produce, increase their income and off farm earnings, improve their social status and house management style and transforming their socio-economic well being. It was recommended that KADP project should be properly financed and managed by government and other public figures because it reduces poverty.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 The Statement of Research Problem
1.3 Research Question
1.4 Aims And Objective
1.6 Justification of the Study
2.0 Literature Review
2.2 Conceptual Literature
2.3 Theoretical Literature
2.4 Empirical Literature
2.4.1 Agricultural and Reduction
2.4.2 Agriculture and Nutrition
2.4.3 Limitations of Previous Studies
3.1 Study Area
3.2 Physical Features and Drainage Pattern
3.2.2 Soil and Vegetation
3.2.3 Physical Farming Problem
3.3. Human Background
3.3.1 Historical Background
3.3.2 The Economy
3.3.3 Agricultural Method and Practices
3.4.1 Analytical Tools
3.4.2 Operational Definitions and Measurement Of Variables
3.4.3 Institutional Variables
4.0 Data Presentation and Discussion
4.2 sources of Information
4.2.1 Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Respondents
4.2.2 Distribution of Respondents by sex
4.2.3 Respondents By Level of Education
4.2.4 Occupations of Respondents
4.2.5 Years of Farming Experiences of Respondents
4.2.6 Secondary Occupation of Respondents
4.3 Sizes of Farmlands
4.4 Distribution of Family Size among Respondents
4.5 Method of Farmland Acquisition
4.6 Method of Acquisition of Fertilizer
4.7 Use of Field Ploughing Equipment
4.8 Method of Land Harrowing
4.9 Distribution and Supplies of Seeds and Chemicals
4.10 Awareness and Adoption of New Farming Techniques
4.11 Farmers Adoption and Utilization of ADP Services
4.12.1 Benefits of ADP Project to Farmers in Lere LGA
4.13 Problems in Purchasing of Fertilizer
4.14. The Use of Insecticides Respondents
4.15 Awareness and Level Use of Sprayers, Insecticides, Ox-Plough and Tractors before tht Project
4.16 Possession and Use of Ox-Plough Problems and Assistance by Project Staffs in Solving the Problems
4.17 Possession, Purchase and Problems of Using Tractors by Respondents.
4.18 Problems of Borrowing and Obtaining Credit by Respondent
4.19 Awareness of items sold and bought from KADP by respondents
4.20 Relationship between Farmers and Extension Workers of ADP
4.21 Project Feeder Roads, Dams and Benefits Derived from ADP Project
4.22 Distribution of Respondents According to Number of People Fed
4.23 Impact Through Socio-Economic wellbeing (Transformation)
5.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.5 Suggestions for Further Study
1.1.1 Background to the Study
Agriculture is the most widely spread form of activity, it serves as a means of livelihood for more than quarter of mankind; raw material for factories, which human beings depend upon and for feeding the agro allied industries. The surplus is sold to purchase other basic necessities of life, such as clothes, can food, electric cookers, stoves, refrigerator, cables satellite, television sets, and radio sets. Many factories will shut down without agriculture; despite the work of science and technology, the world is a dead place without food (Geoffrey, 1990).
Agricultural development through the adoption of new farm input technological knowhow, rural roads facilities, rural electrification enhance increase in food production provide employment obviate rural urban drift as well as improve standard of living of the rural populace and social status (Salisu, 2009).
Government strategies to increase farm income of the rural farmers is designed in such a way that farmers input are scientifically and technologically improved to bring about greater output. Much earlier in the 1960’s Nigeria former regional governments namely the North, West, East and mid-west, under took different policies and specialization method of producing different crops within their territorial bound.
This has shown that, before the advent of the “oil Boom”, the major foreign exchange earner for Nigeria was the sale of agricultural products, such as cocoa, groundnut, cotton, coffee, rubber, palm oil and soya beans, with an estimated value conservatively put at #9.87 billion to #24.6 billion, between the years 1996-2005 (Nikos, 1977). But it was reported that even though the Federal Government currently derives most of its foreign exchange from petroleum, the earnings from agricultural export could still be much higher, if appropriate and sustained polices are applied to the sector (Dunning, 1990).
In Nigeria the year 1960 -68 marked the period of, agricultural development, to accelerate food production generate foreign and exchange and increase country’s balance of trade in the international market, projects were empowered to distribute seed, establish cooperative farmers association and plantation units, provides extension farm centre, introduce modern farming techniques, industries for processing agricultural produce, such as cotton, groundnuts, maize and palm oil. (Mabogunje, 1972) The second period of agricultural development was between the years 1970-1980, was a period of prosperity and oil boom”, agricultural development constraints have taken myriad dimensions, ranging from physical/natural problems, such as, lack of incentive, poor return, low yield output, lack of fertilizer. Other problems include erratic rainfall, long unset and short upset of rain draught.
There is also economic problems such as lack of capital and good transport and communication network, very little or no incentive to farmers to produce more, poor marketing/low pricing problems of agricultural produce (Malton &New Man,1978). Social – cultural problems bedevil agricultural productivity, such as the land tenure system and ownership through inheritance and sharing. World Bank, National Fadama Development programmes(NFDP), National Agricultural Technology Support Programme (NATSP).
The main objectives of the Kaduna Agricultural Development Project are: To achieve incremental food and cash crops production through rain fed and dry season agriculture, as well as Livestock, Fisheries and honey production which will increase the income base of the farmers and improve the standard of These reasons compelled the government of Nigeria to come up with solution to address problem of agriculture, the major solution was the establishing of many projects, assisted by the international and sometimes together with local agencies, such as, the National Fadama Development Programme (NFDP),National Agricultural Technology Support Programme(NATSP) Agricultural Development Project in Nigeria which was established in Funtua in 1975, that was, when the present Kaduna State was a part of the former North-central state consisting of Katsina and Zaria province. (Report,1982) (Dahiru, 1979) (Ibrahim, 1981).
This project is mainly responsible for the development of agricultural production in Kaduna State with the aim of studying its impact after all these years on the farmer’s welfare.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
Agriculture is a very important sector in the economic development of Nigeria. A part from generating revenue it also feeds the population of the country and provide jobs.
Implementation of Agricultural development programme are influence by many factors and there are numerous factors in Nigeria that have brought about the establishment of seven KADP’s in North western part of Nigeria, out of which the Kaduna agricultural development project is one.
Balogun (1986) studied the developmental strategy of past, present and future KADP’s in Nigeria. He found out that they are capital projects that were established with huge amount of money and that are making very small return when compared with the capital invested.
Ajayi (1993) studies On Ondo agricultural development project (OADP) evaluation on socio-economic impact has shown an improvement of income among farmers. He also successfully showed there is a structural problem that results in the duplication of responsibilities that has affected the performance of the OADP. While Igbokwe, (2000) and Maharazu (2002) studied relationship between socio-economic variables on adoption of rice by farmers and Soya beans marketing in Kaduna State, revealed that there is communication gap between farmers and extension workers in the KADP, that has effect the expected output.
Base on the authors findings nobody has studied the impact of KADP on the socioeconomic well being of farmers in Kaduna state. The study intends to provide answers to the following questions:
1. What are the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents?
2. Have the farmers output increased?
3. Have there being impact through input and adoption of new technology?
4. Have there being a socio-economic impact?
The dearth of information on the project with respect to increase in productivity and income generation at the farm service centers (FSC) constitutes the problem. The farm level data would have facilitated analysis of the impact of the project on production; income generation and distribution of farm inputs and implements.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
a. What are the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents?
b. To what extent does farmers output increase through KADP?
c. What is the socio – economic impact of the project on the farmers?
The dearth of information on the project with respect to increase in productivity and income generation at the farm service centres (FSC) constitutes the problem. The farm level data would have facilitated analysis of the impact of the project on the production, income generation and distribution of farm inputs and implements.
1.4 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The broad objective of this study is to assess the impact of Kaduna agricultural development project (KADP) on the farmer’s socio-economic well-being.
Other specific objectives are;
a) To describe the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents.
b) To determine the level of new technology input channel introduced to farmers.
c) To determine the resource use efficiency of project beneficiaries and non beneficiaries.
Ho1: There is no difference between the social well being of project beneficiaries and non beneficiaries.
Ho2: There is no difference between the economic well being of the project on beneficiaries and non beneficiaries.
1.6 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
The major challenge facing agricultural development was determining its impact effecting necessary socio-economic changes of the farmers understudy. To evaluate the programme would form the basis of review of its impact on the farmers and would also assist the policy maker design and formulate decision. It is also hoped that the general public can benefit from Kaduna agricultural development project (KADP) activities and its impact. The study will assist in the extension of other projects regarding organization project, by checking its lapses and ameliorating same.
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