Throughout history, human kind has been subjected to displacement; some factors make this displacement involuntary. These factors range from violent, social conflict to naturally occurring phenomena such as drought or flood thereby leaving many homeless and with no option than to be resettled in camps, the victims are called the Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs). This research attempts to access the intervention offered by the government authorities and organization to the Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in Nigeria, Adamawa State, Malkohi camp and to identify gaps in service as well as identify what needs to be strengthened. The relevance of the study was supported by relevant literature and theories, the research was conducted among the Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) living in the camp. Random sampling technique was used to select the sample, while data was obtained through administration of questionnaires; data gathered was analyzed using simple percentage. The study found out that there is some level of coordination in the IDP camp, though proper monitoring and accountability is very poor which needs to be strengthened. It also suggests that government should introduce the cluster approach for maximum coordination and monitoring activities.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Problem Statement
1.3 Research Question
1.4 Objectives of the Study
1.5 Scope of the Study
1.6 Limitation of the Study
1.7 Research Methodology
1.8 Research Structure
1.9 Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.2 Emergency Reliefs
2.3 Humanitarian Crises
2.4 Overview of Insurgency and Humanitarian Crises
2.5 Dimensions of Humanitarian Crises in Northeast Nigeria from 2009-2014 Impact on Human Casualties
2.6 Impact on the Population
2.7 Rises in Displacement of People in the Northeast
2.8 Theoretical Framework
2.9 A Theory of Obligation
2.10 Obligation Theory in Relation to Emergency Relief and the IDPs
CHAPTER THREE: EMERGENCY RELIEF AND THE INTERNALLY DISPLACED: A HISTORICAL OVERVIEW
3.1 Historical Background of Adamawa State
3.6 Status of IDPs in Adamawa State and the Nature of the Emergency Relief Provided
3.7 Emergency Relief Provided
3.8 Problems Faced by the Internally Displaced Persons
3.9 Effects of Internally Displaced on Individuals and the Society
CHAPTER FOUR: EMERGENCY RELIEF AND INTERNALLY DISPLACED:
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data Presentation and Analysis
4.3 Research Findings
4.4 Discussion of Findings
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1.1 Background of the Study
The principal objective of international humanitarian action, and the purpose of coordination, is to meet the needs of affected people by means that are reliable, effective, inclusive, and respect humanitarian principles. This study focuses on humanitarian and emergency reliefs activities by different organizations to IDPS in Adamawa State.
Seven million people are in need of emergency, life-saving assistance in the four worst-affected states in the North-East, Adamawa, Borno, Gombe and Yobe, of which an estimated 3 million are caught up in insecure and inaccessible areas. This research however focuses on Adamawa State.
Yola, the capital of Adamawa State in North Eastern Nigeria, continues to struggle due to a prolonged humanitarian crisis, arising from the insurgency and counter-insurgency activities in the region, in relation to the Boko Haram movement. Boko Haram, as the group is popularly known, can be roughly translated to ‘western education is prohibited’. Founded in 2002, the group started systematic attacks in 2009 against the Nigerian security operatives, traditional leaders and the civilian population. Since then, Boko Haram has targeted markets, motor parks, places of worship, government offices, detention centers, religious figures and, increasingly, schools and children. The group’s tactics began with hit-and-run attacks and have evolved into take-and-hold attacks, controlling large swaths of territory. Their activities have progressively expanded beyond Nigeria’s borders into Cameroon, Chad and Niger. An alarming trend observed since July, 2014 is the recruitment and use of boys and girls by Boko Haram in support roles and in combat. Children were also used as human shields to protect Boko Haram elements. In addition, it was reported there is a growing number of girls used as suicide bombers in populated urban centers.
The ongoing crisis has generated an estimated 13, 000 – 17, 500 deaths, and resulted in massive population displacement arising from fear of insurgents, assaults, destruction of property, and loss of livelihood (Human Right Watch, 2014; Amnesty International, 2014). The deteriorating security situation in and around surrounding villages of Adamawa State, coupled with a comparatively more stable situation in Yola, has culminated into a high number of individuals fleeing into the town to seek refuge. In Yola, Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) from Borno and border communities of Adamawa, such as Gwoza, Askira, Uba, Baga, Lassa, Biu, Michika, Madagali, Mubi North and Mubi South, Hong, Gombi among others, have been displaced since late 2013 and over 45% of IDPs have been displaced more than twice (Oxfam, 2014, and International Rescue Committee (IRC), 2014). According to IOM (Displacement Tracking Matrix program), in June 2015 Borno State had the highest number of the IDPs (1,002,688) followed by Yobe State (125,484) and Adamawa State (113,437).
These impending problems have kindled the interest of several humanitarian organizations especially since it is obvious that the government is overwhelmed by the crises. However, sometimes it is not the absence of offers to help that pose problems, but those helping hands overlapping as well. For this reason, in 2005, the cluster coordination approach was introduced after an earthquake in Pakistan, where different organizations coordinate themselves so as to have different roles to play so that there would be even distribution of relief activities.
With regards to reliefs and emergencies, cluster coordination mechanisms can be defined as accountability measures activated in instances where the system is overwhelmed and cannot be able to effectively carryout distribution in affected areas. However, extra international coordination capacity may be valuable even when a Government is able to lead and coordinate a response.
1.2 Problem Statement
About ninety-two per cent of internally displaced people are seeking refuge among host communities, where resources and basic services are being exhausted, leading to risky livelihood strategies amongst displaced and hosting communities alike. Escaping from attacks in rural areas, IDPs are taking shelter in the relative safety of urban centers, causing overcrowding in already-inadequate living conditions and putting resources and basic services under huge strain. Yola, the capital of Adamawa State, has seen its population more than double with the influx of people displaced from other areas of the state. The major responsibility of coordination of IDPs is so as to reduce duplication, overlapping, enhances accountability and ultimately ameliorate the problems of the affected area in a timely manner.
The government and donor agencies find their hands full with myriad of challenges managing these people. The federal government and good spirited individuals, corporate organizations have responded by bringing early reliefs and large budget of total resettling of these victims.
The major challenge to be addressed is the issue of coordination and monitoring, accountability is also a major challenge in humanitarian activities. For instance, there are reports of some individuals conniving with NEMA officials to resell relief materials to people in Adamawa State. This research also looks at the challenges and achievement of emergency relief activities.
1.3 Research Questions
This research shall provide answers for the following questions:
1. How effective is the coordination of humanitarian and emergency relief activities in Adamawa state?
2. What are the monitoring strategies of relief activities in Adamawa state?
3. How accountable is the administration of humanitarian and emergency relief activities as employed by the donor agencies and government managing it in Adamawa state?
4. What are the challenges and achievements of emergency relief activities to the IDPs in the state
1.4 Objectives of the Study
This research is aimed at assessing the Humanitarian and Emergency Relief activities in North-Eastern Nigeria with focus on Adamawa State and it is carried out with the following objectives:
1. To investigate the effectiveness of humanitarian and emergency relief activities coordination in Adamawa state.
2. To examine the monitoring strategies of humanitarian and emergency relief activities in Adamawa state.
3. To examine accountability in humanitarian and emergency relief activities in Adamawa state.
4. To investigate the challenges and achievement of humanitarian and emergency relief activities in Adamawa state.
1.5 Scope of the Study
According to a report by the Office of the Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA, 2015), there are about 46 organizations having relief and humanitarian activities in the North East with 30 of them operating in Adamawa State. However, since the research focuses on emergency relief activities with emphasis on mitigation preparedness, response and recovery, the report reveals that the organizations in Adamawa State are engaged in activities ranging from setting up and coordination of camps, evacuation/recovery and consideration to timely response of attacks and disasters.
1.6 Limitations of the Study
The full dimension of IDP camps entails prevention, mitigation preparedness, disaster, response, recovery and reconstruction. However due to time factor, not all these dimensions can be explored in the course of the research. Prevention is a dimension that is too complex to measure within the time frame of this research and also based on the premise of humanitarian and perspective. It would be hard to discuss Reconstruction especially since the affected areas still experience some spats of crises which has the capacity to hinder reconstruction.
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