Tuesday, 20 December 2016

A Technical Report On Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (Siwes)


ABSTRACT
Kaduna state water board, Kaduna south plant and water works branch produces about 240 million litters per day. The plant is divided into four chambers namely: low lift chamber (intake section which has four pumps where water is being drown from the source( River Kaduna) and it is sent to the sedimentation basin for treatment process), sedimentation chamber (it comprises of the clarifiers, settlers, flocculation channel and flash mixer), filtration chamber (which comprises a bed of sand or granular substances which filters the water coming from the sedimentation basin to the reservoir for distribution to the different busters stations and also back-washing takes place to remove flocs and other particulate impurities), and high lift chamber (this section distributes water to 3 buster stations of kakuri, U/mu'azu & Barnawabuster stations). The activity of water from the intake section called the low lift to the distribution section called high lift undergoes series of processes which includes; pre-treatment (aeration/oxidation), coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, disinfection, and liming. Chemical tests are carried in order to know the daily quality and standard of production of water and then the water is suitable or fit for drinking and town supply. The chemical tests are; alum Jar test, chlorine test, cascade test, pH, etc.




Contents
DECLARATION.. iii
CERTIFICATION.. iv
DEDICATION.. v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.. vi
ABSTRACT.. vii
CHAPTER ONE.. 1
INTRODUCTION.. 1
1.2 BRIEF HISTORY OF SIWES. 2
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF SIWES. 2
1.4 HISTORY OF KADUNA STATE PLANT AND WATER WORKS. 3
1.5 ROUTINE ACTIVITIES IN THE PLANT.. 5
1.5.0 Water Treatment Steps. 5

CHAPTER TWO.. 8
2.0  Materials used in the treatment of water. 22
2.0.1 Laboratory Equipment 22
2.0.2 Laboratory apparatus. 24
2.0.3 Chemicals Used In Water Treatment. 19
2.0.4 Laboratory reagents used

. 21
CHAPTER THREE.. 25
3.0 Test / analysis conducted. 25
3.0.1 Chlorine test 25
3.0.2 TURBIDITY TEST.. 29
3.0.3 pH TEST.. 32
3.0.4 JAR TEST ANALYSIS. 34
3.0.5 CASCADE TEST ANALYSIS. 40

CHAPTER FOUR
.. 42
4.0 SUMMARY
4.0 CONCLUSION.. 43
4.1 RECOMMENDATIONS. 44
4.2 REFERENCES. 45

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 ABOUT SIWES
The Student Working Experience Scheme Industrial (SIWES) is an acceptable skill training program introduced in 1973 to solve the problem of inadequate practical skills and prepare students for employment in industries after graduation. (Michael, 1973)

Student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) was established by industrial training fund (ITF) in 1973 to solve the challenges faced by employers by Nigerian graduates of tertiary institutions. These Nigerian graduates lack some adequate practical skills which are necessary for effective service upon employment.

The scheme usually takes the duration of three (3) or six (6) months for students in polytechnics universities respectively. The scheme exposes students to industrial based skills necessary for smooth transition from the classroom to the world of work. This SIWES afford students of tertiary institution the opportunity to get themselves conversant with the need experience in handling some instruments, chemicals, and machines which are usually unavailable in their institutions of learning.
The body, (ITF), is charged with the responsibilities of coordinating SIWES in the various degrees, diploma, NCE, and other equivalent programs across the various states of the federation. It is also responsible in paying the students some allowances either directly through the employers or by the ITF itself.
The SIWES for part of the approved minimum academic standard in the various programs for all Nigeria tertiary institutions because it serves as a necessary pre-conditions for the award of degrees, diploma and all certificates in specific disciplines in most institutions of higher learning in the country in accordance with the educational policy of the federal government.

1.2 BRIEF HISTORY OF SIWES

SIWES is a programme that was established in 1974 by National University Commission (NUC) which is aimed at exposing students and bridging the gap between theoretical aspects required in tertiary institutions and the practical aspects in the establishment applied. The programme was initiated by the Industrial Training Fund (ITF).
ITF was established in 1971 by decree no. 47 of October, 1971 as the Federal Government policy of transforming the economy of the nation from its predominant dependence of foreign expertise to a state of self-reliance through the training development of Nigerians that would be competent enough to perform the specialised skills required to manage the essential sector of the economy.

        1.3 OBJECTIVES OF SIWES

The student industrial work scheme (SIWES) was among one thing set up to achieve the other main objectives which include the following:

To provide an avenue for students in the Nigerian tertiary institutions to acquire the basic Industrial skills and experiences that are relevant to their course of study.
        
            To prepare student for work situation they are likely to encounter after graduation.


To make transition to the world of work easier hence, enhancing students contact for Subsequent job placement after graduation.

To expose students to work techniques and methods of handling equipment’s and Machines that may not be readily available in their institution of learning.

 1.4 HISTORY OF KADUNA STATE PLANT AND WATER WORKS KADUNA SOUTH PLANT.

Kaduna state water board (KSWB) has its head office at Olusegun Obasanjo house located at  Yakubu Gowon way, Kaduna. The first plant was built in the year 1929 which is now known as Kaduna south plant and water works. This plant was constructed with a production capacity of 27 million liters per day (MLD) Of treated water and is located at station road Kaduna south, Kaduna. The total volume of water produced is further distributed to the buster Station at Barnawa, Kakuri, Ungwar Muazu and other region through pipe
and some time carried by tanker to consumers in Kaduna metropolis As time goes on, the population of people living in Kaduna increased. Which led to the establishment of Malali plant and water works in the Year1971. (Lettman, 1930).


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