Saturday, 17 December 2016

An Evaluation Of The Role of Media in Ethno-Religious Conflicts in Kaduna State: A Case Study of Kaduna State


Abstract

At independence in 1960 Nigeria emerged a Federal System with three Regions. Not long after independence the country became a Republic and the Regions were increased to four. At that time Nigeria operated the Westminster Parliamentary system adopted from Britain. The economy was largely based on the agricultural resources of the country with each region excelling in an area of comparative advantage. The state as the avenue for the control of decision-making, dispensation of political spoils and economic patronage raise the competition to the level of a vicious struggle.


In this contest for power the regional, ethnic and religious pluralism of Nigeria are exploited by various sections of the elite to serve their selfish interests. This study adopted Araham Maslow’s human needs theory and the Conflict theory to explain the role of media in ethno-religious conflicts. The study relied on both primary and secondary data in it’s resolve to explain the role of media in ethno-religious conflicts in Kaduna state. The findings revealed that the media contributes effectively in ethno-religious conflicts and also confirmed a significant success of media in ethno-religious conflicts. In its recommendation the study suggests the government to support and encourage local partners involved in peace-keeping, the media should initiate programs that would unite   the people and enhance inter-religious relationships and the government should work on security issues.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Approval page

Declaration

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Table of content

Abstract



CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                                                                        

1.1   Background of study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Research questions

1.4 Objectives of study

1.5 Research hypothesis

1.6 Significance of study

1.7 Scope of study

1.8 Methodology

1.9 Organization of chapters

1.10 Definition of terms



CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW/THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK                    

2.0 Introduction

2.1 Historical overview of ethno-religious conflict in Nigeria

2.2 Concepts of ethnicity and conflict

2.3 Causes of ethno-religious conflicts

2.4 Review of ethno-religious conflict

2.5 Economic effects of religious conflicts

2.6 Theoretical framework

2.6.1 Abraham Maslow’s human needs theory

2.6.2 Conflict theory

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOY 

Introduction Research design

3.3 Population

3.4 Sampling and sampling technique

3.5 Procedure for data collection

3.6 Procedure for data analysis
 
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS                                       

4.0 Introduction

4.1 Data analysis

4.1.1 Respondents information

4.2 Test of hypothesis

4.3 Discussion of Findings


CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS             

5.1 Summary

5.2 Conclusion

5.3 Recommendations

References

Appendix

SAQ for the selected Respondents




CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background   to   the   study
From its very early beginnings, mass media is a significant force in modern culture, sociologists refer to this as mediated culture where media reflects and creates the culture. Communities and individuals are bombarded constantly with messages from a multitude of sources including TV, billboards, and magazines, to name a few. The current level of media saturation has not always existed. As recently as the 1960s and 1970s, television, for example, consisted of primarily three networks, public broadcasting, and a few local independent stations. This widespread availability and exposure makes television the primary focus of most mass media discussions.(Dominick, J.R 2009)
The media consists of film, print, radio and television, searching from the primitive to the modern societies the history of the media has been that of changes wrought by improvements in technology. It begins with the application of the printing press to book production from the mid-15th century onwards in Western Europe. Whether in the form of symbols in early human societies or through the use of talking drums in some traditional African societies, some technical skills are required to convey messages. Consequently, changes advances in the technological for mass communication invariably imply new ways of doing things or new things done in entirely new ways.(Dominick, J.R 2009)
Since the 1920s, the relative scarcity of channels that could video or audio signals meant that a few transmitters broadcast to thousands, even hundreds of thousands, of passive receivers; today, this scarcity is evaporating as both new wire and wireless technologies permit the simultaneous exchange of thousand of signals. Radio and television technologies did not dictate their use nor the structure of the broadcasting industry-laws and profit incentives did. We have witnessed stunning breakthroughs in digital, compression, microchip, and switching technologies.

Newspapers, television programmes, local news and wheather, traditionally distributed through a variety of mechanisms and institutions, could be delivered over a single or electronic infrastructure.  Since in the late 1980s, it has become increasingly clear that emerging information technologies can offer not just new communication services, but an entirely new communication paradigm. These technologies allow us to overcome, for example, the technological restraints that give us the genre of communications known as “broadcasting”.(Dr.R.C.Ramanujam, 2009)
The first broadcasting of a radio transmission consisted of Morse Code (or wireless telegraphy) was made from a temporary station set up by Gugleilmo Marconi in 1895. This followed on from pioneering work in the field  by Alessadro Volta, Andrearie, Ampere, Georg ohm, James  Clerk Maxwell an Heinrich Hertz.

The broadcasting of music and talk via radio started experimentally around 1905-1906 and commercially around 1920-193. In the early days, radio stations broadcast on the long wave, medium wave and short wave bands, and later on VHF (very high frequency) and UHF (ultra high frequency).

By the 1950’s, virtually every country had a broadcasting system, typically one owned and operated by the government. A dramatic change came in the 1960’s with the introduction of small inexpensive portable transistor radio, the greatly expanded ownership and usage. Access became practically universal across the world. Broadcasting has seen many improvements and challenges: these include (but are not confined to).
·   International broadcasts, particularly on short wave band.
· Better  technology, which saw radio becoming cheaper and available in almost every home, as well as in cars and portable sets.
· The introduction of FM broadcasting and its effect on AM stations.
· The challenge of television, which meant that radio broadcasters later concentrated  on music of varying types, news, sport and discussion programs.
·  The invention of the transistor, meaning even greater portability and even cheaper radio and television sets.

The advent of the internet is a phenomenon that has both excited and confounded those for long involved with the traditional mass media. A global network of computers which enables multimedia transmission of text, pictures, graphics, audio and video defies any of the old characterizations possible with the old media. Most Nigerian newspapers, like their international counterparts, quickly set up online editions, initially as an act to bring corporate prestige and secondly as a medium to make their publications cheaply available worldwide.

By its very vastness, the internet has created a great demand for content that has been difficult to satisfy. The internet has also provided Nigerian journalists useful tools for doing their job. With the email, there is a fast and cheap way to file stories to the copy desk once a reporter has access to a computer and internet connection. Were the internet appears to the print media, they appear to be more in favour of broadcasting.


Most radio stations in the industralised countries now broadcast through the internet, using their website. Although there has been deregulation of media, it is often remarked that, in response to the advent of new media and changed conditions, we are really in a period of de-regulation where regulatory frameworks are amended to reflect new economic and/or political priorities rather than simply removed.(Dr. R.C.Ramanujam, 2009)
1.2 Statement of the problem
The  media is a daily platform for information that is nearer to the people. It may not be perceived as problematic but rather how the media handle conflict issues and how that affects conflict escalation or de-escalation. Media response to ethno-religious conflict and avoiding neutrality cannot be ignored as not problematic.
The problem further, is the media practitioners  being influenced by their religion or ethnic background in the discharge of their duties during ethno-religious conflicts. And also media ownership can also be seen as a problem in cases of lack of neutrality. More of ethno-religious conflicts has escalated as a result of side taking and covering up the truth. It is against this background that this study seeks to examine the role of the media in ethno-religious conflict in Kaduna State.
1.3 Research   questions
The  following research questions were raised for the study:
i. How does the media contribute to ethno-religious conflict in Kaduna state?
ii.What is the perception of the people towards the role of the media in ethno-religious conflict in Kaduna state?
iii.What are the challenges of the media in ethno-religious conflict in Kaduna state?
iv. How successful is the media in ethno-religious conflict in Kaduna state?
1.4  Objectives of the study
The aim of this study is to examine the role of the media in ethno-religious conflict in Kaduna state.
The  specific objectives are:
i. To examine the contribution of the media in ethno-religious conflict in Kaduna state.
ii. To examine the perception of the people towards the role of the media in ethno-religious conflict in Kaduna state.
iii.To examine the challenges of the media in ethno-religious conflict in Kaduna state.
iv.To examine the success of   the media in ethno-religious conflict in Kaduna state.

1.5 Research  hypotheses
The hypotheses formulated for the study are as follows:
 Ho: There are challenges to the role of the media in ethno-religious conflict in   Kaduna state.
 H1: There are no challenges to the role of the  media  in ethno-religious conflict in Kaduna state.

1.6  Significance  of  the  study
The findings of this study will provide knowledge about the role of media in ethno-religious conflict in Kaduna state. Political parties, Governments, Ministry of information, Media Organizations, School administrators and parents and guardians could use the findings of this study to make guidelines and policies to help in developing better ways in  resolving  ethno-religious conflict. The findings of this study might help future researchers who are interested in the field.

1.7  Scope of the study
Geographically, the study will be carried out in and limited to Kaduna state. Which is the northern part of Nigeria. It will be conducted in selected residents purposively residents that were affected in past conflicts in the area.

1.8  Methodology
A survey research design will be adopted for this study. Under this design, the study employs cross-sectional Descriptive design. Purposive sampling technique will be used in Kaduna state town. The reasons for using this sampling technique are for the convenience and expense implication of the researcher. Purpose sampling technique will also be adopted in selecting 150 respondents in Kaduna state town (100 men and 50 women).

Both primary and secondary data will be used for this study. The primary data will be obtained through structured interview and copies of structured questionnaires while the secondary data will be obtained from journals, electoral reports etc. Data collected for this study will be analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively with more emphasis on the quantitative method using the percentages and descriptive statistical tool to test the hypotheses.


1.9  Organization of  chapters
Chapter one will look at the background to the study, statement of problem, objective of the study, statement of hypotheses, scope of the study, significance of the study, research methodology, definition of terms, and plan of work.
Chapter two will look at literature review and theoretical framework.
Chapter three will discuss the historical of the area of study.
Chapter four will discuss the presentation of data and analysis. And finally
Chapter five will be summary, conclusion and recommendations

1.10 Definition  of  terms
 1. Conflict: A fight, struggle, or combat; A controversy or quarrel; Active opposition. (Maitama-sule, 2007)

2.Ethnicity:  A member of a particular ethnic group, especially one who maintains the language or customs of the group. Being a member of a particular ethnic group, especially belonging to a national group by heritage or culture but residing outside its national boundaries. (Diamond, 2002)
3.Media:According to Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, defines media as the collective communication outlets or tools that are used to store and deliver information or data. It is either associated with communication media, or the specialized mass media communication such as : print media and the press, photography, advertising, cinema, broadcasting(radio and television) and publishing.


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