Tuesday, 6 September 2016

Modeling Of Gas Pollution From Ilorin Animal Waste Dumpsite



Atmospheric emission of methane (CH4) associated with animal waste are worldwide problem and may contribute to a detrimental impact on the environment.

CH4 are important green house gases that are produced anthropogenic ally but mainly by plant, animal waste and from natural geothermal source. Other green house gases include CO2, NH3.    




TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                                                                

Certification                                                                                                                            

Dedication                                                                                                                              

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                  

Table of contents                                                                                                                    

           
CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction                                                                                                                

1.1 Background of study                                                                                                  

1.2 Statements of the problems                                                                                        

1.3 Aim and objectives                                                                                                     

1.3.1Aim                                                                                                                             

1.3.2Objectives                                                                                                                   

1.4 Scope of research                                                                                                        

1.5 Definition of terms                                                                                                     

1.5.1Trace gas                                                                                                                   

1.5.2Pollution                                                                                                                    

1.5.3Animal waste                                                                                                           


CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature review                                                                                                         

2.1Carbon dioxide emission                                                                                            

2.2 Methane emission                                                                                                       

2.3 Nitrous Oxide Emission                                                                                              

2.4 Non Point Pollution                                                                                                    

2.5 Pollution from animal waste harms                                                                             

2.6 Waste management practices  should be improve                                                       

2.7 Data sources and Limit                                                                                                    

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Methodology                                                                                                              

3.1 Description of study area                                                                                            

            
 CHAPTER FOUR

4.0  Result and Discussion                                                                                                 

4.1  Data Obtained from the field                                                                                     

           
CHAPTER FIVE

5.0  Conclusion and Recommendation                                                                              

5.1  Conclusion                                                                                                                  

5.2  Recommendation                                                                                                         
References                                


Table 1:  Data Obtained for day 1                                                                                 

Table 2:  Data Obtained for day 2                                                                                 

Table 3:  Data Obtained for day 3                                                                                 

Table 4:  Data Obtained for day 4                                                                                 

Table 5:  Data Obtained for day 5                                                                                 

Table 6:  Compress Field Value Results In ppm                                                           

Table 7:  Compress field value results in tons                                                               

Table 8:  Output of IWM tools                                                                                      

Table 9:  Comparism of output                                                                                      


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Atmospheric emission of methane (CH4) associated with animal waste are worldwide problem and may contribute to a detrimental impact on the environment.

CH4 are important green house gases that are produced anthropogenic ally but mainly by plant, animal waste and from natural geothermal source. Other green house gases include CO2, NH3.    


‘Greenhouse’ gases are gases that have a molecular structure such that they obstruct the radiation of heat from the earth, thus acting like the glass or membrane over a greenhouse. The gases that are most effective at absorbing this radiated heat are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydro fluorocarbons and sculpture hexafluoride.


The above ‘greenhouse’ gases have differing abilities to absorb the heat radiated from the earth and are assigned factors (their ‘global warning potential’) based on their absorbing ability relative to that of carbon dioxide. The factors depend on the lifetime over which the effect of the gases is assessed. A gas which is quickly removed from the atmosphere may initially have a large effect but over a longer period the effect will be much less important.

1.1           
 
BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Waste products are valuable resources as fertilizer and suitable to be applied to crops and pastures. However. When concentrated into relatively small geographical area or applied in excessive amounts, waste can have detrimental environmental effects. This can results in enhanced CO2, CH4 and NS0 emission to the atmosphere influencing global warming and destruction of the ozone layer (mosier, 1998). These gases have long atmospheric lifetimes, are consequently fairly well mixed and therefore of global as well as local or regional importance.

They represent a most serious threat to global climate in terms of greenhouse effect and their overall radioactive forcing from pre industrial time to date were estimated as 1.85,0.15 and 0.1.2Wm-2 respectively. Anthropogenic sources account for 70% of the total annual release of CH4, 16% of which coming from production of waste (IPCC, 1994). Soil microbial processes accesses account for 65% of the total N2) source strength (5 to 5 TG year-1). These researches measured the emission of NH3 using ToxiREA pro and modeling to estimate emission by Gabi 6 tools.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Scientist agree that even a small increase in the global temperature would led to significant climate and whether changes, affecting cloud cover, precipitation, wind patterns, the frequency and severity of storms, and the duration of season.

       I.           
Rising temperature would raise sea levels as well, reducing supplies if fresh wash water as flooding occurs along coastlines world and salt water reaches inland.

    II.          
Many of the world endangered species would become extinct as raise in temperature would change their habitat.

 III.            Millions of people also will be affected especially poor people who live in precarious locations or depend on land for sustenance living.

 IV.            Certain vector bam diseases carried by animals or insects such as malaria would become wide spread as warmer conditions expand their range.


1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:

     
     1.3.1 AIM
The aim of the project is to model trace gas pollution from Ilorin animal waste dumpsite.


1.3.2    OBJECTIVES:

i.   Pollution locator (animal waste)

ii.  To quantity emission rate of trace gases from animal waste dump site in Ilorin

iii. To understand better trace gases emission level from pollution and its effect on global warning

iv.  To  model trace gas pollution from Ilorin animal waste dumpsite


1.4 SCOPE OF RESEARCH:

  •  I.To locate animal waste dumpsite in Ilorin

  •  II.To detect and monitor trace gases from located dumpsite using Toxireapro gas monitor

  •  III. To analyze the effect of trace gases from animal dumpsite to Ilorin environment

  •  IV. And to model the effect of trace gases on the environment


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