Tuesday, 6 September 2016

Evaluation Of Tricycle As Public Transport System In An Urban Area

This project goes into detailed evaluation of tricycle as public means of transport system in an urban area with a particular reference to Ipata-Sango, Ilorin metropolis selected as the case study. The project reviews existing literature on Tricycle ( Keke Napep) within Ipata-Sango, Ilorin. Inclusive are the circumstances that led to the invention of this medium as well as the drawbacks encounter in the past. However the finding of the research work base on the evaluation of Tricycle as public means of transport system indicates the present operational but attached to this are some few shortcomings caused by both Kwara State Government, the Tricycle transport agency and tricyclists or operators. Also is the shortcoming of management and staff leading to inefficiency in the system.

With the full study on all these drawbacks, it`s now suggested that the running of the corporation should be given to competent personnel base on merits and qualifications with less intervention by the State Government into the financial and operational capabilities. In addition, the management/staff is suggested to be encouraged and developed by giving incentives and training in their course of service years. Above all the research work poses to be more effective in planning and monitoring all aspect of Safety. If it is done continuosly, therefore it serves a means of redressing areas where there are deficiencies.


Title page                                                                                                                     




Table of contents                                                                                                        

List of tables                                                                                                               



1.0 Introduction                                                                                                          

1.1 Statement of the problem                                                                                     

1.2 Aim and Objectives of the study                                                                          

1.3 Justification of the theory                                                                                     

1.4 Scope of the study                                                                                                

1.5 Description of the study area                                                                                

1.6 Proposed Methodology                                                                                        


2.0 Literature Review                                                                                                 

2.1 Tricycle as a mode of transportation                                                                     

2.2 Importance of Tricycle (Keke Napep) as a mode of public Transport in an urban area                                                                                    
2.3 Short coming of Tricycle                                                                                      

2.4 The importance of wearing helmet while riding a Tricycle                                 

2.5 Requirement to be met by helmet used by Keke Napep riders (Tricyclist)    


3.0 Methodology                                                                                                        

3.1 Oral Interview                                                                                                       

3.2 Issuing of Questionnaire                                                                                       

3.3 Field Work                                                                                                            

3.4 Kwara State Tricycle operation (Control Safety E.T.C)  laws 2010         


4.0 Analysis and Discussion of result                                                                         

4.1 Introduction                                                                                                          

4.2 Oral Interview                                                                                                       

4.3 Questionnaire                                                                                                        

4.4 Field Work                                                                                                            

Characteristic of operators (Tricyclist)                                                                        

Challenges or factors militating against the smooth running

of the trade                                                                                                                 


5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation                                                           

5.1 Conclusion

5.2 Recommendation                                                                                            



Table 4.1:  Details of the result from the Oral interview                                            

Table 4.2:  Result from the questionnaire distributed                                                  

Table 4.3:  Ages of respondent within Ipata-Sango, Ilorin                                        

Table 4.4:  Reason for operating Tricycle within the various streets                         

Table 4.5:  Educational attainment of respondents                                                    

Table 4.6:  Monthly income of the operators within the various Street.                     


Plate 4.1: Ipata road, Ilorin                                                                                 

Plate 4.2: Amilegbe-Ipata road, Ilorin                                                                 
Plate 4.3: Oke andi junction, Ilorin             

The inability of the conventional modes of transport such as Trains,buses, cars, Okada and ferry services to meet transportation demand owing to fleet depletion and high operational cost caused by down turn in economy,resulting in high record of accident from Okada motor cycles has led to unplanned emergence of para transit or non conventional mode of transportation popularly known as KEKE NAPEP (tricycle).
Tricycle refers to a commercial device where tricycle riders carry passengers for hire.The name TRICYCLE is as a result of the machine being a pedal driven vehicle with two wheel at the back and a wheel at front.KEKE NAPEP is known for it comfort ability and safety compare to Okada motorcycle. Kekenapep (Tricycle) became more useful and indispensable as soon as the federal government bound Okada motorcycle across several states in the country.In an ironic metaphor,the first group of tricycle transporters was then given the name “KEKE NAPEP.”Because of the comic irony of this name being used for tricycles and popularity of the manufacture which is India, the name Keke napep for commercial tricycle was never to be for gotten and eventually become as popular as it is okay.

The primary objective of most transport system is to make profit.This is because profit yield growth, survival and continuity in business.The various transport corporations recognize this fact.Over the years and prior to this contemporary age,a lot of factors had challenged the profitability of this transport system. Travelers across the nation have found it difficult to convey considerable goods which cannot be carried by lorry as a result of it meager nature and lesser weight,on several occasion business men and travelers are usually stranded and effectually get frustrated until the invention of this so called TRICYCLE which have gone a long way to assist the travelers and transporters in conveying the goods from the manufacturers and sites to their destination comfortably and safely compare to Okada motorcycle. The study therefore examines the following problems;

1.What are the motives for establishing Tricycle as public transport system in Nigeria and     subsequently in Kwara State?

2. To what extent are these motives being achieved?


1.     The aim of this project is to evaluate Tricycle as public transport system in an urban area within Ipata-Sango

1.  To assist the effectiveness of tricycle compare to other means of public transport system.

2.   To determine the significance of  tricycle compare to other means of public transport

Evaluation of tricycle as a public means of transport is considered worthy of study because of the inability of travelers to convey their goods and produce from the market and farm including sites to their destination. Also a lot of Okada motorcycles multiply on the various roads without helping in conveying of goods and even safety entirely especially within Ipata-Sango Ilorin. Therefore, to assist the public especially in the aspect of safety and transportation of goods, there is a need to study in to the evaluation of tricycle as a public means of transportation in an urban area.

This study is limited to Ipata-Sango, Ilorin metropolis. The major factor considered here is
1.      Avoidance of overloading

2.      Adherence to the approved speed limit

3.      Abstains from drunkenness

4.      Avoidance of rough riding

5.      Ensuring the tricycles are protected with the mini canopy(water proof) for safety

6.      We also focus on the plate number and uniformity of the vehicles colour

7.      The total number of passengers patronizing tricycle.

All passengers are likely to encounter one form of challenges or the other. In the course of my research, I observed that the passengers usually encounter diverse forms of challenges such as;
1 Exposure to rainfall: In most cases, the build up of the TRICYCLE (Keke  Napep) makes the passengers vulnerable to external forces such as rainfall and for this reason most of the passenger found it uncomfortable to board because they usually get wet when travelling.

ii. Excessive Wind pressure: the two sides of the Tricycle is obviously opened with no doorsunlike vehicles that are properly secured. This opening usually expose the passengers to   high wind pressure which may subsequently result to illness especially when the vehicle is on high speed.

iii. Uncomfortability : on several occasions, the passengers seat at both front and back are     usually tight as a result of variation in size and shape of the passengers. The  bigger the passengers, the more tight and uncomfortable they feel while travelling.

iv. Accident: The kind of accident associated with this form of Transportation (KEKE NAPEP) is usually fatal, though they seems to be very rare on local road. This factor also discourage some passengers from travelling by Tricycles.

1.5 DESCRIPTION OF STUDY AREA (case study of Ipata-Sango) Ilorin.

    From IOT, take a bike straight to Ipata. Ipata is usually a marketing area and a very busy place too. There are two lanes road at ipata with shop available along the roadside. Tricycles are also common in that area.


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