Wednesday, 7 September 2016

Effect Of Street Trading On Traffic Performance And Control

Abtrsact
The solid base of this project is the effect of street trading on traffic performance and controls: a case study of Offa Town particularly, Owode Market and Oloffa Way.
            It comprises of five chapters in which each of the chapters analyzed the view of the project. Chapter one deals with the introduction of the project, the causes and the short comings of street trading, the aim and objectives, statement of the problem, justification, scope of the study and description of the study area. Also include in this chapter the methodology, that is, the methods employed to acquired information and data, Chapter two based on the literature review of the project, the causes and effect of obstruction of traffic flow, which is the effect of parking, street trading and delay on traffic performance, the description of the project areas, past effort made on the problem.


Chapter three, this deals with the collection of data, the studies of the behavior of the parties involved, that is, the traders, drivers and pedestrians. Also included the opinions gathered through the questionnaires. Chapter four is totally based on the analysis and designs of data collected. Chapter five presents the conclusion and recommendation suggested for the problems.



TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page                                                                                                                                

Certification                                                                                                                            
Dedication                                                                                                                              
Acknowledgement                                                                                                                  
Abstract                                                                                                                                  
Table of content                                                                                                                      
List of figures                                                                                                                        
List oftables



CHAPTER ONE
Introduction                                                                                                                            
Statement of the problem                                                                                                       
Aim and objectives                                                                                                                 
Justification                                                                                                                             
Scope                                                                                                                                    
Project area description                                                                                                           
Description of study area                                                                                                        
Methodology                                                                                                                          
Primary source                                                                                                                        
Secondary source                                                                                                                    

Presentation of report                   


CHAPTER TWO
Literature                                                                                                                                
Some definition related to traffic engineering                                                                        
Causes of street trading and their short coming                                                                     
Past efforts made on the control of street trading                                                                  
Causes of street trading                                                                                                          
Short coming of street trading                                                                                                
Causes and effects of obstruction of traffic flow                                                                  
Effect of parking on traffic flow                                                                                            
Effect of street trading on traffic performance                                                                      
Effect of delay on traffic flow         
                                                                                           
CHAPTER THREE
Date collection                                                                                                                      
Questionnaires                                                                                                                      
Drivers’ characteristic and view                                                                                             
Pedestrians’ characteristics and views                                                                                    1Traffic wardens’ characteristics and views                                                                                
Street traders’ characteristics and views                                                                                 
Pedestrians’ movement studies                                                                                               
Traffic volume data                                                                                                                
Speed data                                                                                                                              
Traffic delay data                                                                                                                   
Roadway capacity    
                                                                                                            


CHAPTER FOUR

Data analysis                                                                                                                           
Spot speed analysis                                                                                                                 
Traffic delay analysis                                                                                                              
Roadway capacity analysis                                                                                                     
Road width analysis                                                                                                               


CHAPTER FIVE

Conclusion and recommendation                                                                                           
Conclusion                                                                                                                              
Recommendation                                                                                                                    
References                                                                                                                            
Appendix A: Questionnaires for traffic wardens                                                                   
Appendix B: Questionnaires for Pedestrian                                                                           
Appendix C: Questionnaires for Drivers                                                                              
 
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction
Traffic performance under normal flow is affected by many conditions which include delay, when the traffic is impeded by some external factors, traffic demands on the capacity for the road, weather, Peak and off Peak period factor.  
           
With these conditions, it is mostly or usually a great problem for a smooth flow of traffic or traffic performance, because delay which is being caused by other vehicles on the road constitutes traffic congestion on its own. So, also is the problem of traffic, because with a bad weather like, hay, rainfall etc. Traffic is bound to be slow and also constituting to traffic congestion. The peak and off peak factor influences traffic flow, usually high at peak periods, because demand increases and becoming normalized at off peak periods, most especially the major roads. There is also, the problem of street trading which contribute to the problems of traffic performance (congestion).
           
Street trading means selling, exposing or offering for sale of any article on a street.
           
Also, street trading is an unauthorized act of carrying out trading activities on the open street, display stand, selling or offering of goods or any kind of services whatsoever, operating both sales and market stall that encroached on any public road. According to Cross J., (2000) (052 Glo.Adv. Res.J.Manager. Bus.stud)
“Street” includes any road, footway or other area to which the public has access without payment.
            Through street trading, a long established element of the populace was been repressed before, by harassment and prosecution by law enforcement agents, but of recent, it has flourished as it is allowed to operate, which is closely linked or connected to the process of urbanization and the unstable economic situation, used to be in a specified format in the olden days with the traders coming to the urban areas to sell their farm product from the rural areas on stipulated days. But, these days, the traders had established themselves around the key transportation modes and other sides of economics and social activities. 

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Street trading has impeded easy movement and deteriorates traffic performance. This trading and other activity has led to a drastic reduction in the design width for traffic movement which is causing unprecedented traffic congestion on our roads. Besides this effect, other areas affected were assessed.

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES  
Aim of this project is to explore effect of street trading on traffic performance and controls: a case study of Offa Town.
Objectives of this project are:
  • 1)      Inventory of traders and trading in Owode market area of Offa Town, Kwara State.
  • 2)      Inventory of traders and trading along Oloffa Way, Offa, Kwara State
  • 3)      To evaluate the effects of the street traders on traffic movement
  • 4)      To increase the pedestrians safety within the study areas.
  • 5)      Once those above listed aim and objectives can be achieved, there will be ease on traffic performance.



1.4 JUSTIFICATION
The justification of this project is to explore the effect of street trading on traffic performance and finding possible remedies to decrease its effects to barest minimum in Offa Town.

1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This project studies the effect of street trading on traffic performance: a case study of Offa Town, particularly Owode Market Area and Oloffa Way.
            Owode Market, being the point of affected area due to high volume of the traffic coming to the region and influences of traders trading within the axis. 

1.6 DESCRIPTION OF STUDY AREA
Offa Town is an ancient town and Headquarters of Offa Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. It is the second largest Town in the State, Offa is located in central Nigeria with geographic coordinates of 80 90N 40 43E.

1.7 METHODOLOGY
An inventory study of the road user consideration was done during which the effect of street trading was observed. Also the driver, pedestrians and commuter behavior to the problems were observed.

And causes of delay apart from street trading were not over looked, since street trading is not the only cause of traffic congestion.
            Data were also collected; such data include the volume of traffic and the speed of vehicles at the areas under the case study.
            
The method employed can be divided into two categories, these are:

1.8 PRIMARY SOURCE
This consist of the information collected from site during feasibility studies of the areas affected and also, through interview at both locations by interviewing the drivers, traders, commuters and pedestrians. Some data were collected.

1.9 SECONDARY SOURCE
This comprises of information obtained through the questionnaires distributed among the different parties involved and these included the drivers, pedestrians, traffic whom are the division of the Nigeria police force whom are supposed to be controlling the flows of traffic in the affected areas. The purpose of this is to obtain the opinion of the parties involved and their views on how the problem could be solved. Also included the plate (pictures) of the affected areas

1.2.0 PRESENTATION OF REPORT
The solid base of this project is the effect of street trading on traffic performance and controls: a case study of Offa Town particularly, Owode Market and Olaffa Way.
          
It comprises of five chapters in which each of the chapters analyzed the view of the project.
            Chapter one deals with the introduction of the project, the causes and the short comings of street trading, the aim and objectives, statement of the problem, justification, scope of the study and description of the study area. Also include in this chapter the methodology, that is, the methods employed to acquired information and data.
           
Chapter two based on the literature review of the project, the causes and effect of obstruction of traffic flow, which is the effect of parking, street trading and delay on traffic performance, the description of the project areas, past effort made on the problem.
The chapter also included the definition of some related term to traffic.
            Chapter three, this deals with the collection of data, the studies of the behavior of the parties involved, that is, the traders, drivers and pedestrians. Also included the opinions gathered through the questionnaires.
           
Chapter four is totally based on the analysis and designs of data collected.
           
Chapter five presents the conclusion and recommendation suggested for the problems.




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