Tuesday, 6 September 2016

Determination Of The Causes, Effects Of Environmental Pollution And Its Possible Control, Within Nigeria



ABSTRACT
This project, Eradication of Environmental Pollution, (a case study of Kwara, Osun, Industries).
Pollution is a very terrible phenomenon as it does more harm to human health and environment, or pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the surrounding to cause discomfort to the Ecosystem. Industrial pollution, which is a branch of pollution, occurs mostly in towns as a result or rapid urbanization, geometrical increase, in human needs and industrial development which has a connection with increase industrial pollution. In the course of the study, the environmental protection Agency (EPA) collaborates with many agencies to eradicate pollution and the literature review enumerates the ideas and lectures on the project little by some school of thoughts and learning men in their books. The survey of several locations of industries and their characteristics in Ilorin, Oshogbo, and also gives the required information and data of industrial pollution and it covers the effects of all the type of industrial pollution and it covers the effects of all the type of industrial pollution.


TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page                                                                                                                                
Certification                                                                                                                            
Dedication                                                                                                                              
Acknowledgement                                                                                                                  
Abstract                                                                                                                                  
Table of content                                                                                                                      
           

CHAPTER ONE
1.0  INTRODUCTION                                                                                                     
1.1 Preamble, Definition and cause of environmental pollution                                        
1.2 Types of Pollution                                                                                                       
1.3 Major Air Pollutant, Chemical Pollutant and Their Sources.                                      
1.4 Aim and Objectives                                                                                                           
1.5 Scope of the Study                                                                                                     
1.6 Justification of the Study                                                                                           
1.7Description of the Study Area                                                                                                
           

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature Review                                                                                                       
2.1Collaboration of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)                                       
2.2Air Pollution                                                                                                               
2.3Water Pollution                                                                                                           
2.4Land Pollution                                                                                         

2.5Inter-Pollution of Resources                                                                                       
2.6 Pollution by Sanitary Waste                    

                                                                 

CHAPTER THREE            
3.0 Methodology                                                                                                                    
3.1 Nigerian Bottling Company Limited (Oshogbo)                                                           
3.2.Saw – mill (Wood industry) (Ilorin)                                                                         
3.3.Iron and steel manufacturing industry (Oshogbo)                                                                                                                                  
3.5.Tuyil Pharmaceutical Company                                  

CHAPTER FOUR
 4.0Result and Conclusion                                                                                              
4.1.Effects of water pollutant                                                                                        
4.2.Effects of air pollutant                                                                                              
4.3.Effects of land pollutant                                                                                             
4.4. Effects of noise pollutant                                                                                                
4.5  Possible Method solution to industrial pollution                                                        
4.5.1.Air pollution                                                                                                                   
4.5.2Water pollution                                                                                                            
4.6  Solid removal                                                                                                            
4.6.1Piping system                                                                                                            
4.6.2 Chemistry Treatment                                                                                                  
4.6.3.Noise pollution                                                                                                            
4.7  Possible Solution to Land Pollution                                                                           
4.7.1Sanitary Land Filling                                                                                                    
4.7.2.Operation of a Sanitary Landfill                                                                                   
4.7.3.Merits of sanitary land filling                                                                                      
           
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0.Recommendations and Conclusion                                                                            
5.1.Conclusion                                                                                                                  
5.2 Recommendations                                                                                                      
  Reference                                                                               
 

IST OF TABLES

Table 3.1:- Industrial assessment                                                                              
Table 3.2:- Pollution in saw mill (wood industry)                                                    
Table 3.3:- Raw material used in the industry                                                            
Table 3.4:- Pollution from raw materials                                                                     
Table 4.1:- Summary of pollution of water                                                                 
Table 4.2:- Summary of air pollutants                                                             
Table 4.3:- Summary of land pollutants                                                                      
Table 4.4:- summary of noise pollutant                                                                     
 


LIST OF PLATES
Plate 1.1:- Water pollution                                                                                                
Plate 1.3:- Land pollution II                                                                                       
Plate 1.4:- Noise pollution                                                                                        
Plate 1.5:- Air pollution II                                         

INTRODUCTION

1.0 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION, CAUSES AND IT’S POSSIBLE CONTROL

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical system or living organisms.
           
Ibiwoye E.O (2009), Pollution can take the form of chemical substance or energy such as noise, heat, or light. It was the industrial revolution that gave birth to environment pollution as we know it today. The emergence of great factories and consumption of immense qualities of coal and other fossils fuels gave rise to unprecedented air pollution and the large volume of industrial chemical discharge added to the growing load of untreated human waste.
           
If our surrounding polluted we suffer from many kinds of disease and sickness, if our surrounding get highly polluted our life get endangered.
            Pollution as a very pervasive phenomenon, is a discharge into the environment in qualities of some substance or energy or gases by man which can be considered harmful to himself and other living organism and worse still, reduce the quality of human life, pollution is a relative concept and although, almost no substance exists in a pure state, it is only when the impurities rise above a certain level that there is concern. Moreover, they varies from case to case depending on the particular use for which the source is intended.        

1.1 Causes of Environmental Pollution
Industrial pollution is a pollution which can be directly link with industries in contrast to other pollution sources. This form of pollution is one most leading causes of pollution worldwide. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimate that up to 50% of nation’s pollution is cause by industries. Industrial pollution poses problem for the entire planet especially developing countries like Nigeria. There are number of forms of industrial pollution. One of the most common is water pollution, caused by dumping of industrial waste, which causes leakage into ground water and waterway.
           
Industrial pollution can also impact air quality, and it can enter the soil causing widespread environment problems. Smoke rise from the fuel that we burn in our kitchens and workshops. This smoke gives rise to carbon dioxide that pollutes our environment. The smoke that people make while they smoke that rises from the hotels, and restaurants in towns and cities pollute the environment.

Industrial pollution hurts the environment in a range of ways, and it has a negative impact on human lives and health pollutants make an kill animals and plants, imbalance ecosystems degrade air quality radically, damage buildings, and generally degrade quality of life factory workers in area with uncontrolled industrial pollution are especially vulnerable.

1.2 TYPES OF POLLUTION
Pollution is a result of progression and development that is occurring on a regular basis with the growth of technology, more and more development is taking place in order to improve the quality of human life, this series is certainly giving high level of comfort and a rich life style to all humans but is sadly diminishing the worth of human health, the need to have a good and healthy environment is ignored.

Many new inventions and introduction are causing a danger to human life as they are done artificially; this artificial and unsystematic way of generating high level of comforts is producing components that are inevitable to human life. Be it anything including the basis needs of like clothing and even food is now being produced synthetically. There are some of the most common types of environmental pollution that are gradually bringing people to a morbid stage are

A.    Air pollution
B.     Water pollution
C.     Noise pollution
D.    Land pollution
E.     Waste and water pollution

A. Air pollution in the industries takes place when some dangerous gases are discharge in to atmosphere in quantities that may render the air unbreathable.

B. Water pollution The waste product of factories, (water pollution) which are in form of liquid effluent may drain off in to the nearby fresh or steam there by polluting the water and rendering the water noxious, harmful and undrinkable.

C. Noise pollution The excessive noise emanating from the factories engines has effect on our sleep, hearing, speech communication, degree of annoyance and other undesirable effects of noise pollution and it also affect human being physiologically and physiological.

D.Land pollution occur when solid refused are heaped-up on the ground surface causing severe nuisance to the environment and also reduce or limit the utility of availability of space to which the affected land can be put in to.

E.Waste and water pollution, when toxic substances enter lake streams, rivers, oceans, and other water bodies, they get dissolved or lie suspended in water or get deposited on the bed. This result in the pollution of water whereby the quality of the water deteriorates, affecting aquatic ecosystems. Pollutants can also seep down affect the ground water deposit.
                                                 



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