Monday, 18 July 2016

Determination Of Phytochemicals In Aqeous Solution Of Cyathula Prostrata (Pasture Weeds)


ABSTRACT
Studies were conducted to determine the phytochemicals present in cyathula protata leaves. Leaves for this work were washed, room dried, ground to powder. The ground leave for both for 72 hours. After the contact elapsed, the solvent were filtered to recover the extract. Qualitative analysis was carried out on the extract the result showed cyathula prostate to contain saponin, flavonoid, tannin, phenol, steroid and Glycoscde. While carbohydrate is absent on the extract due to the chemical activities. In the qualitative analysis water was best solvent for the extraction.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Table of contents

CHAPTER ONE
1.1Introduction
1.2 Phytochemical
1.2.1Activity of Phytochemicals
1.3 Aims and Objectives of study

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Botany of cyathula prostrate
2.1.2 Origin and Habitat
2.1.3 Ecology and Cultivation
2.1.4 Medicinal Uses
2.2 Phytochemicals
2.2.1 Tannins
2.2.2 Phenols
2.2.3 Saponins
2.2.4 Steroids
2.2.5 Alkaloid
2.2.6 Glycoside
2.2.7 Flavonoids

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Materials and Methods
3.1. Materials
3.1.1 Plant materials
3.1.2 Chemical and Reagents
3.2 Methods
3.2.1 Preparation of Aqueous Extraction
3.2.2 Phytochemical Screening
3.2.2.1 Saponin
3.2.2.2 Alkaloids
3.2.2.3 Glycosides
3.2.2.4 Tannins
3.2.2.5 Carbohydrate
3.2.2.6 Protein.

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Result and Discussion
Conclusion
Recommendation
References
Appendix

 CHAPTER ONE

  • 1.1 Introduction

    From time immemorial, man depend on plants as medicine. From a historical perspectives, it is evident that the fascination for plant is as old as man kind itself. The plant kingdom represent a rich store house of organic compounds, many of which have been used for medicinal purpose and could sever as lead for the development of novel agents having good efficacy in various pathological disorders in the coming years. Plants are the richest source of drugs for traditional medicine, modern medicines, nutraceuticals. Intermediates and chemical entities for synthetic drugs (Hammer, 1999). The use of plant product as far back as the medicines could be traced as far back as the beginning of human civilization.

    The earliest mentioned medicinal used plant in Hindu culture is found in “Rigueda” which is said to have been written between 4500-1600 BC and is supposed to be the oldest repository human knowledge. The active principle isolated, have been provided leads in the development of several life saving drugs, which are in use today (Rastogy and mehrotra, 2002). The isolated active compound of the plants are secondary metabolite chemical. Compound what occur naturally on plant with no nutritional value to human life.

    These phytochemicals play protectives in plants, each chemical labeled photochemical works in different ways, not all one the same for human, and not all come from the same plants. Some have shown humans. There some basic type of illness active compounds that are found in different fruit and vegetables. We have some of them like antioxidants, they are present in onions and some other fruit and tea, they act as preventive means for premature cell death and some forms of cancer.

    Plant estrogen is found in soy and soy products, they are helpful in the year just before and after menopause. Capsaicin is found in hot pepper and it has been shown to significantly capsaicin on a regular basis by eating spicy food with hot peppers may prove an excellent preventive agent to prostrate cancer and being growth of prostrate (Ahmed, 2005) this experiment was carried out on cyathula prostate.

        Cyathula prostrate or cyathula geniculata is an annual branched herb, reaching a length of 1 meter or more, with the stem postrate and creeping below, leaves are rhomboid-oblong, 2 to 8 centimeters long, and gradually tapering to an acute base spikes are terminal and auxiliary, slender, peduncles, and 5 to 20 centimeter long. Flowers are numerous, greenish, ovoid and millimeters long, thin-walled, hairless, one seeded, surrounded by a stiff perianth. (Sharman, 2003).
The plant cyathula prostrata is commonly called Pasture weed in english and  Sawerepepe in yoruba. (John, 2002).

1.2   Phytochemicals
Phytochemical are non-nutritive plant chemical that have protective or disease preventing properties. It is a chemical compounds that occurs naturally in plants and responsible for color and organoleptic property. They are non-essential nutrient, meaning that are not required by human body for sustaining life.
       
Human being hacve been utilizing plants for basic preventic and curative health care since time immemorial. It is addition to morphine and reports shows that it gives fever side effect than morphine administered on its own (ANON, 2007) there are some chemicals that are known to have anti-bacterial properties which includes; flavonoids and alkaloids. Most of these phytochemical constituents are potent bioactive compound found in medicinal parts of which are precursors for the synthesis of useful drug (sofowora, 1993). Some of the most common phytochemical classes are described in the following section.

1.2.1Activity of Phytochemical
Antioxidant:- Most phytochemicals have antioxidant activity and protect our cells against oxidative damage and reduce the risk of developing certain types of cancer. Phytochemicals with antioxidant activity includes: allyl sulfide (onions, leeks and garlic), carotenoids (fruit, carrots), flavonoids (fruits, vegetables), polyphenols tea, grapes) (Anwar, 2007).

Normonal Action:- Isoflavones, found in soy, imitate human estrogens and help to reduce menopausal symptoms and osteroporosis.

Stimulation of Enzymes:- Indoles, which are found in cabbages: stimulate enzymes that makes the estrogen less effective and thus could reduce the rest for breast cancer. Other photochemical, which interfere with enzymes are protease inhibitors (Soy and beans),  terpenes (Citrus fruits and Cherries). (Daziel, 1999).

Interference with DNA replication:- Saponins found in beans interfere with the replication of DNA cell, thereby preventing the multiplication of cancer cells. Capsaicin, found in hot peppers, protect DNA from carcinogens. (Agrios, 2005)

Physical action:- Some phytochemicals bind physically to cell walls thereby preventing the adhesion of pathogens to human cell walls. Proanthocyanidins are responsible for the anti-adhesion properties of cranberry. Consumption of cranberries will reduce the risk of urinary tract infections and will improve dental health. (Hartwell, 1967).
        Phytochemicals are naturally present in many foods but it is expected that through bioengineering new plants will be developed, which will contain high levels. This would make it easier to incorporate enough photochemicals with our food.

1.3 Aims and Objectives of Phytochemical
To identify the phytochemical that are present in aqeous extract of  cyathula prostrata.


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