Sunday, 17 July 2016

Characterization And Identification Of Soil Microorganisms

ABSTRACT
Soil samples were collected from different locations in Kwara State Polytechnic. The samples collected were analysed microbiologically. The soil samples have different bacteria, fungi as its microflora. The presence of all the isolated soil microfloral was discussed.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page                                                                                          
Certification                                                                                    
Dedication                                                                                        
Acknowledgment                                                                          
Abstract                                                                                            
Table of contents                                                                                       
List of tables                                                                                    
List of figures  

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction                                                                                
 
CHAPTER TWO
2.0Material and Methods                                                          
2.1Collection of sample                                                             
2.2Preparation of Nutrient Agar                                                 
2.3Preparation of potato dextrose agar                                              
2.4Identification of Bacteria                                                        
2.5Isolation of pure culturing                                                     
2.6Isolation of gram staining Organism                                     
2.7Identification of  Fungi                                                           

CHAPTER THREE
3.0Result                                                                                      
3.1Description of Bacteria                                                           
3.2 Description of fungal isolates                                                 

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Discussion                                                                            
4.1 Conclusion and Recommendation                                         

Reference 

CHAPTER ONE
1.0   INTRODUCTION
Soil is considered as the outermost and surface of the earth which provides the substratum for plant and animal life. The soil represents a favourable habitat for microorganisms and is inhabited by a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, algae, viruses and protozoa.

The physical structure, aeration, water holding capacity and availability of nutrients and determined by the mineral constituents of soil, which are formed by the weathering of rock and the degradative metabolic activities of the soil microorganisms.

It can tolerate a wide range of soil levels however, bacteria favours a neutral to slightly alkaline soil up to 8.0 when pH drops below 6, fungi begin to dominate as bacteria finds it less favourable.

Cultivated soil has relatively more population of microorganisms than the fallow land and the soil is rich in organic matter which contain much more population than sandy and eroded soils, microbes in the soil are important to us in maintaining soil fertility, cycling of nutrient elements in the biosphere and sources of industrial products such as enzymes, antibiotics, vitamins, hormones and organic acid but certain microbes in the soil are the causal agent of various human and plant diseases. In living organisms, both plants and animals, constitute an important component of soil. The pioneering investigations of a number early microbiologists showed for the first time that the soil was not an inert static material but a medium pulsating with life (Archulate, 2009).
The soil microorganism is the study of organisms in soils, their functions and how they affect soil properties. It is believed that between two and four billion years ago the first ancient bacterial and microorganisms came about in earth primitive seas, these bacteria could fix nitrogen in time multiplied and as a result released oxygen into the atmosphere.

This release of oxygen led to more advanced microorganisms. Microorganisms in soil are minute organisms which can not be seen with naked eye, soil are very important because they affect the structure and fertility of different soils. The soil microorganisms can be classified as bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, algae and protozoa.

Each of these groups have characteristics that define the organism and different functions in the soil they live in. the soil microorganisms (collectively the soil biomass) are the agents of transformation of soil organic matter, nutrients and most of the key soil processes, their activities are much influenced by soil physical-chemical and ecological interactions.

The interactions are addressed in two key issues. Firstly, way to managing and the extent to which it is possible to manage soil biological functions. Secondly, the methodologies available for studying soil microorganisms and the functions they mediate. Based on ecological function the soil performs, they can be classified as:
i. Herbivores that subsist on living plants
ii. Detritivores that subsist on dead plant debris
iii.Predator that consume animals
iv.Fungivores that eat fungi
v. Bacteriavores that eat bacteria
vi.Parasites that live off, but do not consume of the organisms.

Soil microorganisms are creatures that spend all or part of their live in the soil. There are some soil organisms which can be classified according to their sizes
i. Macro organisms (> 2mm in width)
ii.Meso organisms (0.2mm in width)
iii.Micro organisms (<0.2mm in width)

Soil microorganisms are living, breathing organisms and therefore need to eat, they compete with plants for nitrogen and phosphorus, they also consume amino acids and vitamins which are derived from the organic matter. The feed upon and the benefit is that they also give back or perform other functions that is beneficial and essential to the live by giving properties of soil (Shurtleff et al., 2010).


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