Download complete project material on Assessment Of Medical Application Of Biotechnology from chapter one to five
Contrary to its name, biotechnology is not a single technology. Rather it is a group of technologies that share two common characteristics – working with living cells and their molecules and having a wide range of practice uses that can improve our lives.
Biotechnology can be broadly defined as “using organisms or their products for commercial purposes. As such (traditional) biotechnology has been practices since he beginning of records history. (It has been used to) bake bread, brew alcoholic beverages, and breed food crops or domestic animal (Johnson 1982).
1.1 History and Development
2.0 Application of Biotechnology
2.1 Industrial Biotechnology
2.2 Environmental Biotechnology
2.3 Human Application
3.0 Medical Application of Biotechnology
3.0.1 Human Gene
3.0.2 Detecting Genetic Disease
3.2 Genetic Testing
3.3 Gene Therapy
4.0 Regulation and Legislation of Biotechnology
4.1 Example of Treatments Developed with the aid of Biotechnology
But recent developments in molecular biology have given biotechnology have given biotechnology new meaning, new prominence, and new potential. It is (modern) biotechnology that has captured the attention of the public. Modern biotechnology can have a dramatic effect on the world economy and society (Johnson 1982).
One example of modern biotechnology is genetic engineering. Genetic engineering is the process of transferring individual genes between organisms or modifying the genes in an organism to remove or add a desired trait or characteristic examples of genetic engineering are described later in this document. Through genetic engineering genetically modified crops or organisms are formed. These GM crops or GMOS are used to produce biotech-derived foods. It is this specific type of modern biotechnology genetic engineering, that seems to generate the most attention and concern by consumers and consumer groups (W, Brains, 1987).
In other words, biotechnology can be defined as the mere application of technical advances in life science to develop commercial products. Biotechnology also writes on the pure biological science (genetic, microbiology, animal cell, agriculture, molecular biology, biochemistry, embryology, cell biology). And in many instances it is also dependent on knowledge and methods from outside the sphere of biology including,
- Chemical engineering
- Bioprocess engineering
- Bioinformatics, a new brand of computer science
- Bio robotics
A series of derived terms have been coined to identity several branches of biotechnology for examples.
- Bioinformatics: Is an interdisciplinary field which addresses biological problems using computational techniques and makes the rapid organization as well as analysis of biological data possible. The field may also be referred to as computational biology, and can be defined as conceptualizing biology in terms of molecules and their applying informatics techniques to understand and organizing the information associated not these molecules on a large scale (Gerstan M. 2007) Bioinformatics play a key role in various areas such as functional genomics structural genomics & proteomics and forms a key components on the biotechnology and pharmaceutical sector.
- Blue biotechnology: Is a term that has been used to describe the marine and aquatic application of biotechnology, but its use is relatively rare.
- Green biotechnology: Is biotechnology applied to agriculture processes. An example would be the selection and domestication of plants via micro propagation. Another example is the designing of transgenic plants to grow under specific environments in the presence (or absence) of chemicals. One hope is that green biotechnology might produce more environmentally friendly solution than traditional industrial agriculture. An example of this is the engineering of a plant to express a pesticide thereby ending the need of external application of pesticides. An example of this would be Bt. Corn. Whether or not green biotechnology products such as this are at mately more environmentally friendly is a topic of considerable debate.
- Red biotechnology is applied to medical processes. Some examples are the designing organisms to produce antibiotics and the engineering of genetic cares through genetic manipulation.
- White biotechnology: Also known as industrial biotechnology, is biotechnology applied to industrial processes. An example is the designing of an organism to produce a useful chemical.
Another example is the using of enzymes as industrial catalysts to either produce valuable chemicals or destroy hazardous / polluting chemicals.
AREA OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
- Plants and animals cell culture resulting in somatic embryos and capsulated seeds, interferon, monoclonal antibiotics and fine chemicals, (alkalos, essential oils, dyes sterols).
- nitrogen fixation which leads to microbial inoculation ( biofertilizer).
- treatment of utilization of biomass leading to the production of single cell proteins, myco proteins, proteins from fungi and bio fuels.
- recombinant DNA technology (Genetics engineering ) leading to productions of fine chemicals, vaccines, enzymes, growth hormones, and antibiotics.
- Bio fuels (bioenergy) leading to product like hydrogen (via photolysis) alcohol from biomass. Methane (bio gas from water and aquatic weeds)