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Well Water Assessment/Analysis For Domestic Use In Kaduna

Introduction
Since creation,
water has been essential to man, animal and plant, and without water lives on
earth would not survive. From the beginning of human civilization people have
settled close to water sources, along river side or near natural spring. Indeed
where people live some water is normally available for drinking, domestic uses
and for animals. This does not imply however, that availability of source of
water is convenient and sufficient in quantity and quality and that water is
safe and wholesome (Yusuf, 2008).

TABLE
OF CONTENT
Title page
Declaration
Approval page
Dedication
Acknowledgement         
Table of
contents 
 
Chapter One
1.0  Introduction
1.1  Ground water
1.2  Well
1.3  Location/project area
1.4  Project justification
1.5  Scope of study
1.6  Aim
1.7  objectives
1.8  significance of study
Chapter two
2.0     Hydrological cycle
2.1     Hydrological cycle
2.2     Origin and occurrence of ground water
2.3     Extraction of ground water
2.3.1  Contaminations on well
2.3.2  Sources of contaminations on dug wells
(potential)      
2.4     Ground water movement         
2.5     Ground water yield
2.6     Characteristics of ground water        
2.6.1  Physical characteristics
2.6.2  Chemical characteristic/properties
2.6.3  Biological characteristics
2.7     sources of open well pollution
2.7.1 Seepage
water from the surface
2.7.2  the vessels used for drawing water
2.7.3  rubbish thrown down the well
2.7.4  pollution by refuse
2.8     purpose of water quality examination
2.9     hand dug wells
2.9.1  advantages of hand dug wells
2.10   ground water quality
2.11   ground water contamination
2.12   impact of pit latrines on ground water in the
case study area
2.13   impact of stagnant dirty gutter groundwater
contamination in project area      
2.14   impact of indiscriminate refuse dump in
groundwater contamination in project area
2.15   movement of contaminated ground water
Chapter three
3.0 methodology
3.1 Material and methods
3.2  sample and sampling techniques
3.2.1  analysis of well water samples
3.3.0  test procedures
3.3.0.1 physical
characteristics
3.3.1.2
Conductivity
3.3.1.3 Total
dissolved solids
3.3.2  Chemical characteristics
3.3.2.1 Chloride
test
3.3.2.2 Iron
test
3.3.2.3
Magnasese
3.3.2.4 pH
3.3.2.5 Hardness
3.3.2.6 Sulphate
test
3.3.2.7 Calcuim
and magnesium
3.3.3.1
Bio-chemical oxygen demand (B.O.D) test
3.3.3.2
Bacteriological test; (using most probable number method for
coliform
counts)   
Chapter Four                                                               
4.0     Discussion/ Assessment of results
Chapter Five
5.0     Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1     Conclusion
5.2     Recommendation
          References
  

CHAPTER ONE
           1.0     Introduction
Since creation,
water has been essential to man, animal and plant, and without water lives on
earth would not survive. From the beginning of human civilization people have
settled close to water sources, along river side or near natural spring. Indeed
where people live some water is normally available for drinking, domestic uses
and for animals. This does not imply however, that availability of source of
water is convenient and sufficient in quantity and quality and that water is
safe and wholesome (Yusuf, 2008).
Reports by Food
and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of USA revealed that in Africa countries,
particularly Nigeria, water related disease had been interfering with basic
human development (FAO, 2007). The common sources of water that are available
to local communities in Nigeria are fast being affected by a number of
anthropogenic factors of which pollution remains the most dominant problem.
According to (Asonye et al, 2007). Availability of safe and reliable source of
water is an essential prerequisite for sustainable development.The availability
and purity of groundwater are affected by location, construction and operation
of wells (Egbulem 2003).
           
            1.1     Ground Water
The term ground
water is water located beneath the earth’s surface in soil pore spaces and in
the fractures of rock formations called an aquifer. An aquifer is a layer of
porous substrate that contains and transmits groundwater. Groundwater comes
from rain, snow, and then soaks in the ground. Must ground water is clean but
can become polluted, or contaminated by human activities, from municipal and
domestic areas which generate wide spread of water pollution problems in
complex nature, because sewage water involves different types of pollutants
derived from decaying of  vegetable
animal waste, soaps and also, septic tanks constructed near houses also pollute
the ground  water  badly . This water can be obtained or pumped
up with a well to our houses.
           
            1.2     Well
Water well
“village pump” is an excavation or structure created in the ground by digging,
driving, boring, or drilling to access groundwater in underground aquifers.
Wells vary
greatly on depth, water volume and water quality, well water typically contains
more minerals in solution than surface water and may require treatment to
soften the water by removing minerals such as arsenic, iron and manganese.
There are
several types of wells such as, hand dug well, driven well, and drift wells.
Hand dug well provides a cheap and low-technology solution to accessing ground
water in rural locations, in developing countries and may be built with a high
degree of community participation or by local entrepreneurs who specialize in
hand dug wells.
Due to lack of
guidelines governing ground water exploitation not being properly enforced in
Nigeria (Eduvie et., al 2003), community wells meant to serve the growing
population are often left uncovered, wells are constructed close to pit
laterines house hold trashes, gutters (waste water channels) and prone to storm
water.
Dug wells are
practically the worst ground water sources in terms of feacal contamination,
and bacteriological analysis serves primary to demonstrate the intensity of
contamination and hence the level of the risk of the consumer (WHO, 1997).
            1.3     Location/Project Area
The area of
study Tudun Wada is a developing area located along Kaduna-Abuja road in Kaduna
South local government of Kaduna state. It is about 3km away from Kaduna town
with latitude 10033ʺ00ʺ north and longitude 7026ʺ7ʺ
south. Most of the residents of  tudun wada,
with a population of over 150,000 and the majority who are children, of which
about 50% of this total population depend mainly on hand dug wells as a source
of water supply .
           
            1.4     Project Justification
Hand dug wells
are the major sources of obtaining water for use in tudun wada and are liable
to pollution by the following means.
           i. Most of the wells are located too close
to pit laterines, sockaways or refuse ump areas which can cause pollution to
the wells.
          ii. Waste water channels (gutters) are also
located close to wells which infiltrates and cause pollution to the wells.
         iii. Most of the wells are often uncovered;
this causes harmful materials to fall into the wells, thereby polluting the
well water.
          iv. Vessels used for drawing water from the
wells are not properly kept or most at times kept on the ground which can
pollute the water.
          v. Improper wall heads of some wells which
can cause surface water to carry waste into the well and also during drawing of
water from well can splash on  the
person’s leg and flow back into the well if the well is constructed or located
on a slope.
         1.5     Scope of Study

  • Due to the increasing need of water for
    various needs and development it is good to guard the source of water so as not
    to cause any serious health hazard posed by poor quality water. According to
    World Health Organization (WHO) out of 13.6million children (up to age 5 years)
    that die in the world in 1980, 13.1million were from developing countries, and
    most of the deaths were as a result of water borne diseases which could have
    been prevented if proper care were taken.

  • In Nigeria today research indicates
    that, majority of the common water sources are polluted, resulting to serious
    outbreak of diseases such as typhoid, dysentery, cholera, hepatitis etc.

  • The reason is not farfetched, on how
    quality water can be obtained, improved/protected inclusive from hand dug
    wells, distances of wells from potential pollution sources. physical
    characteristics such as odour, turbidity, colour, taste and conductivity,  bacteriological characteristics such as BOD,
    coliform counts, also chemical characteristics such as sulphate test, chloride
    test, iron and manganese were carried out to check the rate  at which the well water in the case study
    area are polluted.

           1.6  Aim
To determine the
extent of contamination and or pollution on Hand Dug Wells in Tudun Wada area,
Kaduna.
           1.7 Objectives
a. To determine the level of bacterial
contamination on hand dug wells in the study area.
b. To check whether or not that water
obtained from hand dug wells in the study area are suitable for drinking and
other domestic uses.
c. To determine sources of pollution to the
wells.
d. To check whether or not the water
conforms to the    
e. To give advice to the people of the case
study area on possible locations for sitting wells and educates them on health
implications.
f.  To prevent the outbreak of water borne
disease in the study area.
            1.8  Significance of Study
To reduce the
risk of disease, sickness and untimely death caused by polluted or contaminated
well water.
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    Details Of The Full Project

            
     Ms Word Format

     90 Pages

     Chapter 1 – 5

     Reference

     Appendix

     Account Details
     Bank: GTbank
     Name: Uthman Saheed
     Acc No: 0022235647 

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