Thursday, 19 May 2016

Well Water Assessment/Analysis For Domestic Use In Kaduna


Introduction
Since creation, water has been essential to man, animal and plant, and without water lives on earth would not survive. From the beginning of human civilization people have settled close to water sources, along river side or near natural spring. Indeed where people live some water is normally available for drinking, domestic uses and for animals. This does not imply however, that availability of source of water is convenient and sufficient in quantity and quality and that water is safe and wholesome (Yusuf, 2008).


TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page
Declaration
Approval page
Dedication
Acknowledgement         
Table of contents 
 
Chapter One
1.0  Introduction
1.1  Ground water
1.2  Well
1.3  Location/project area
1.4  Project justification
1.5  Scope of study
1.6  Aim
1.7  objectives
1.8  significance of study

Chapter two
2.0     Hydrological cycle
2.1     Hydrological cycle
2.2     Origin and occurrence of ground water
2.3     Extraction of ground water
2.3.1  Contaminations on well
2.3.2  Sources of contaminations on dug wells (potential)      
2.4     Ground water movement         
2.5     Ground water yield
2.6     Characteristics of ground water        
2.6.1  Physical characteristics
2.6.2  Chemical characteristic/properties
2.6.3  Biological characteristics
2.7     sources of open well pollution
2.7.1 Seepage water from the surface
2.7.2  the vessels used for drawing water
2.7.3  rubbish thrown down the well
2.7.4  pollution by refuse
2.8     purpose of water quality examination
2.9     hand dug wells
2.9.1  advantages of hand dug wells
2.10   ground water quality
2.11   ground water contamination
2.12   impact of pit latrines on ground water in the case study area
2.13   impact of stagnant dirty gutter groundwater contamination in project area      
2.14   impact of indiscriminate refuse dump in groundwater contamination in project area
2.15   movement of contaminated ground water

Chapter three
3.0 methodology
3.1 Material and methods
3.2  sample and sampling techniques
3.2.1  analysis of well water samples
3.3.0  test procedures
3.3.0.1 physical characteristics
3.3.1.2 Conductivity
3.3.1.3 Total dissolved solids
3.3.2  Chemical characteristics
3.3.2.1 Chloride test
3.3.2.2 Iron test
3.3.2.3 Magnasese
3.3.2.4 pH
3.3.2.5 Hardness
3.3.2.6 Sulphate test
3.3.2.7 Calcuim and magnesium
3.3.3.1 Bio-chemical oxygen demand (B.O.D) test
3.3.3.2 Bacteriological test; (using most probable number method for
coliform counts)   

Chapter Four                                                               
4.0     Discussion/ Assessment of results

Chapter Five
5.0     Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1     Conclusion
5.2     Recommendation
          References
  

CHAPTER ONE
           1.0     Introduction
Since creation, water has been essential to man, animal and plant, and without water lives on earth would not survive. From the beginning of human civilization people have settled close to water sources, along river side or near natural spring. Indeed where people live some water is normally available for drinking, domestic uses and for animals. This does not imply however, that availability of source of water is convenient and sufficient in quantity and quality and that water is safe and wholesome (Yusuf, 2008).

Reports by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of USA revealed that in Africa countries, particularly Nigeria, water related disease had been interfering with basic human development (FAO, 2007). The common sources of water that are available to local communities in Nigeria are fast being affected by a number of anthropogenic factors of which pollution remains the most dominant problem. According to (Asonye et al, 2007). Availability of safe and reliable source of water is an essential prerequisite for sustainable development.The availability and purity of groundwater are affected by location, construction and operation of wells (Egbulem 2003).
           
            1.1     Ground Water
The term ground water is water located beneath the earth’s surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations called an aquifer. An aquifer is a layer of porous substrate that contains and transmits groundwater. Groundwater comes from rain, snow, and then soaks in the ground. Must ground water is clean but can become polluted, or contaminated by human activities, from municipal and domestic areas which generate wide spread of water pollution problems in complex nature, because sewage water involves different types of pollutants derived from decaying of  vegetable animal waste, soaps and also, septic tanks constructed near houses also pollute the ground  water  badly . This water can be obtained or pumped up with a well to our houses.
           
            1.2     Well
Water well “village pump” is an excavation or structure created in the ground by digging, driving, boring, or drilling to access groundwater in underground aquifers.
Wells vary greatly on depth, water volume and water quality, well water typically contains more minerals in solution than surface water and may require treatment to soften the water by removing minerals such as arsenic, iron and manganese.

There are several types of wells such as, hand dug well, driven well, and drift wells. Hand dug well provides a cheap and low-technology solution to accessing ground water in rural locations, in developing countries and may be built with a high degree of community participation or by local entrepreneurs who specialize in hand dug wells.

Due to lack of guidelines governing ground water exploitation not being properly enforced in Nigeria (Eduvie et., al 2003), community wells meant to serve the growing population are often left uncovered, wells are constructed close to pit laterines house hold trashes, gutters (waste water channels) and prone to storm water.

Dug wells are practically the worst ground water sources in terms of feacal contamination, and bacteriological analysis serves primary to demonstrate the intensity of contamination and hence the level of the risk of the consumer (WHO, 1997).


            1.3     Location/Project Area
The area of study Tudun Wada is a developing area located along Kaduna-Abuja road in Kaduna South local government of Kaduna state. It is about 3km away from Kaduna town with latitude 10033ʺ00ʺ north and longitude 7026ʺ7ʺ south. Most of the residents of  tudun wada, with a population of over 150,000 and the majority who are children, of which about 50% of this total population depend mainly on hand dug wells as a source of water supply .
           
            1.4     Project Justification
Hand dug wells are the major sources of obtaining water for use in tudun wada and are liable to pollution by the following means.

           i. Most of the wells are located too close to pit laterines, sockaways or refuse ump areas which can cause pollution to the wells.
          ii. Waste water channels (gutters) are also located close to wells which infiltrates and cause pollution to the wells.
         iii. Most of the wells are often uncovered; this causes harmful materials to fall into the wells, thereby polluting the well water.

          iv. Vessels used for drawing water from the wells are not properly kept or most at times kept on the ground which can pollute the water.
          v. Improper wall heads of some wells which can cause surface water to carry waste into the well and also during drawing of water from well can splash on  the person’s leg and flow back into the well if the well is constructed or located on a slope.

         1.5     Scope of Study

  • Due to the increasing need of water for various needs and development it is good to guard the source of water so as not to cause any serious health hazard posed by poor quality water. According to World Health Organization (WHO) out of 13.6million children (up to age 5 years) that die in the world in 1980, 13.1million were from developing countries, and most of the deaths were as a result of water borne diseases which could have been prevented if proper care were taken.

  • In Nigeria today research indicates that, majority of the common water sources are polluted, resulting to serious outbreak of diseases such as typhoid, dysentery, cholera, hepatitis etc.

  • The reason is not farfetched, on how quality water can be obtained, improved/protected inclusive from hand dug wells, distances of wells from potential pollution sources. physical characteristics such as odour, turbidity, colour, taste and conductivity,  bacteriological characteristics such as BOD, coliform counts, also chemical characteristics such as sulphate test, chloride test, iron and manganese were carried out to check the rate  at which the well water in the case study area are polluted.

           1.6  Aim
To determine the extent of contamination and or pollution on Hand Dug Wells in Tudun Wada area, Kaduna.

           1.7 Objectives
a. To determine the level of bacterial contamination on hand dug wells in the study area.
b. To check whether or not that water obtained from hand dug wells in the study area are suitable for drinking and other domestic uses.
c. To determine sources of pollution to the wells.
d. To check whether or not the water conforms to the    
e. To give advice to the people of the case study area on possible locations for sitting wells and educates them on health implications.
f.  To prevent the outbreak of water borne disease in the study area.

            1.8  Significance of Study
To reduce the risk of disease, sickness and untimely death caused by polluted or contaminated well water.
To get the full project, you need to download it with N2000only 
    Details Of The Full Project
            

     Ms Word Format
     90 Pages
     Chapter 1 - 5
     Reference
     Appendix




     Account Details
     Bank: GTbank
     Name: Uthman Saheed
     Acc No: 0022235647 


After the payment, send your email address to 08030447894 or uthman41@yahoo.com with the teller number to confirm your payment. In the next few minute, you will receive the project in your email. We can also help you to make amendment to the project, to fit your choice. 
 

Disclaimer: At myschooltrick.com, we understand the effects of plagiarism on research work. Therefore, we condemn it and all the academic research works on myschooltrick are only to serve as a guide for your work. Donnot copy words to words. Thanks

No comments:

Post a Comment


Gain Admission To 200Level Without Jamb-UTME Through IJMB Program, Any University, Any Course. Forms Now On Sale. 08034801226, 08065101775.



Feel Free To Ask Your Questions Using The Below Comment Box.