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The Design And Construction Of An Automatic Phase Changer Switch

Download complete project materials on The Design And Construction Of An Automatic Phase Changer Switch from chapter one to five with reference
ABSTRACT
Electrical power system engineering comprises power generation, transmission, distribution, and the utilization of electricity. Modern trends in the development of electric power systems explore means of improving efficiency in these stages mentioned. On the demand side, the protection of consumer equipment and appliances from damage and total destruction due to phase failures is an issue of paramount importance mainly in parts of the world with unsteady supply of electricity. In this work we took a detailed look into what a phase failure is and the

Possible causes. Then we finally explain the details of a method we have developed that detects cases of phase failure and takes the appropriate measure that will save the consumer loads from damages.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 INTRODUCTION
Three-phase electric power is a common method of alternating-current electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. It is a type of polyphase system and is the most common method used by electrical grids worldwide to transfer power. It is also used to power large motors and other heavy loads. A three-phase system is usually more economical than an equivalent single-phase or two-phasesystem at the same line to ground voltage because it uses less conductor material to transmit electrical power. The three-phase system was independently invented by Galileo Ferraris, Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky and Nikola Tesla in the late 1880s.

After the generation and distribution of electricity, if it is not well managed by the final consumer, there could be losses and serious problems to the loads and user alike. With the recent increase in the use of power in our homes and industries, there is the need to adequately protect our homes, industries and every other appliance that make use of electricity. Thus a phase failure detector is overly important both for the improvement of the quality of service from the power utility companies and the protection of life and properties of the electricity consumers.

In Nigeria today the problems of power outage across phases is so rampant thus leading to some sensitive equipment and appliances being redundant, this could sometimes be the cause of one phase going out with respect to the other.

It may surprise one to note that in an attempt to solve this problems, so many unskilled electricity consumers has  in recent past resorted to some crude means of swapping between phases to obtain power. So many souls have been lost in this act. This is an undesirable condition to consumers and the need now arises to design a device that can automatically select among the phases and make power supply available at the consumer’s terminal.

However, this can only be possible if one have a three phase met or and there is supply from any of the service line or the entire line, this project known as a three phase automatic phase selector has been constructed with a view of solving the problems stated above. The design and construction was based on the principle of Electromagneto-Dynamism and alignment as demonstrated in the relay arrangement.

1.2 Aim and Objective

The aim of this project is to design and construction of an automatic phase changer switch that switches electrical power supply between phases in event of phases drop to prevent equipment from damage. The objective of the work is to demonstrate how relays can be used to switch in-between three lines or phases of “red, yellow and the blue phase” without interfering with the contacts. This type of phase selector is able to switch between phases with the aid of inter-locking one phase to the others.

1.3 Methodology

In three-phase applications, if low voltage is available in any one or two phases, and it is intended for equipment to work on normal voltage, this circuit will solve the problem. The circuit provides correct voltage in the same power supply lines through relays from the other phase where correct voltage is available. Using it one can operate all equipment when correct voltage is available on a single phase in the house.

The circuit is built around a transformer, comparator, transistor and relay.

Three identical sets of this circuit; one each for three phases, are used to detect the presence or absence of supply voltage one each phace and switch to supply or borrow from the next phase (as the case may be) via the electromechanical relays.

1.4 Project Outline

This project report is outlined in the following format: chapter one; the introduction of the automatic phase changer, chapter two; reviews the phase failures, and proactive measures to protect equipment, it also covers the review of the components used in the circuit, chapter three; contained details of the circuit design, four; construction and testing details and finally chapter five contain the recommendation, conclusion and references.

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