Friday, 6 May 2016

Production And Acceptability Study Of Biscuit Produced From Soya Bean And Cassava Composite Flours

ABSTRACT
Cassava and soya beans flour were obtained by traditional method of flour production including sorting, washing, drying, milling, sieving and packaging (with cooking for the soya bean to eliminate trypsin inhibitors). Five composite biscuit from the two flours were produced by varying only the amounts of the two flours in different proportions with increments at 10% level to a maximum of 35% level of the two flours while all other ingredients were added at the same concentration in all the flour composite biscuit. Statistical analysis of sensory evaluation results of the five composite biscuit using analysis of variance and turkey test shows that flour composite biscuit produced were more acceptable in terms of taste, colour and overall acceptability at 5% level of significance. Biscuits produced from composite cassava and soya bean flour respectively, cream method was used in the production of biscuit with the specified ingredient. Biscuits is a mixture of flour and water but contain fat. Sugar and other ingredients mixed together into a dough which is rested for a period, passed between rollers to make a sheet. The sheet is then stamped out, baked, cooled and packaged.


CHAPTER ONE
1.0                    INTRODUCTION
Biscuits are one of the popular cereals foods apart from bread, consumed in Nigeria. They are ready to eat, convenient and inexpensive food products, containing digestive and dietary principles of vital importance (kulkarini, 1997). They are nutritive snacks produced from unpalatable dough that is transformed into appetizing product through the application of heat in the oven (Olaoye et al., 2007).

In Nigeria, ready-to-eat baked products (snacks) consumption is continually growing and there has been increasing reliance on imported wheat. (Akpapunam et al., 1999). Nigeria, moreover, grow staple crops other than wheat such as cassava, yam or sweet potatoes and cereals that can be used for bakery foods. It would therefore be economically advantageous it imported wheat could be reduced or even eliminated and the demand for baked foods such as biscuits could be met by the use of domestically grown products other than wheat (Philip, 1982).

Therefore, efforts are being made to partially replace wheat flour with non-wheat flours as a possibility for increasing the utilization of indigenous crops cultivated in Nigeria as well as contribute to lowering cost of bakery products. (Ayo and Gaffa, 2002). Many workers have studied the physical and baking properties of composite biscuits from starchy staples like cassava, soya bean (Olaoye et al., 2007).

Cassava (Manihot palmate) and soya bean were processed into flours and used to substitute wheat flour as composite flour. The wheat flour was substituted by cassava flour at levels of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70%; while the resulting composite flours at levels above 40% were replaced with 10% soy flour (SBF) to increase their protein levels for biscuit production.

The soya bean (Glycine max) grows in pods enclosing edible seeds. They are usually, green but can be yellow, brown or black, the texture is so adaptable that soya beans are frequently processed into a variety of foods. The soya bean plant is native to china, where it has been cultivated for well over 13,000 years. It was an essential crop for the ancient Chinese who regarded it a necessity for life. They are the basic of soya milk, tofu, miscue, tempeh and soya protein.

Biscuit is a mixture of flour and water but contain fat, sugar and other ingredients mixed together into a dough which is rested for a period, passed between rollers to make a sheet. The sheet is then stamped out, baked, cooled and packaged. (Okaka, 1997).

Biscuits produced from composite flour blend cassava flour respectively cream method was used in the production biscuits with the specified ingredient proximate analysis of the products also determined; moisture content (1-4.5%), fiber content (0.5-1.8%), ash content (14-1%), protein content (17-23.9%) and carbohydrate content (51.60-20%). Cyanide content of the cassava flour was also determined using the measurement of FAO (1984) and was shown to have toxicity effect: 14.85mg/g against 150 lethal dose.

Biscuit are delicious fripperies, in their sugary and more accessible forms they have given pleasure to children and the young at hearl, sweet mouthful that crunch appealingly and then burst with candied on the tongue. (Dan and Richard, 1999).

1.1      STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
                  1. The sugar content in some biscuit produced is very high.
2.  Some biscuit that are been produced have very high content of carbohydrate and very low content in their protein levels.

1.2     AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
          1. To produce a composite flour of cassava and soya beans.
          2. To produce biscuits from the composite flour.
          3. To determine the consumer’s acceptability.

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