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Prevalence Of Bacteria Food Pathogens Of Varieties Of Meal Sold In Local Eateries

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The bacterial load on meals of jollof rice and white rice sold in local eateries within Kaduna Polytechnic, Main Campus Tudun wada, Kaduna was determined using total bacterial count method. This work was carried out to ascertain the presence of possible pathogenic bacteria that may cause food contamination. The number of samples examined were 20, 10 samples for jollof rice and 10 for white rice respectively. Out of the food samples examined 98% had growth.

The total bacterial count of white rice range between 4.9 x 104 to 8.3 x 104 while that of jollof rice ranged between 2.0 x 104 to 8.3 x 104. The bacterial growth were identified using cultural, morphological and characterized biochemical test. Six bacterial genera were isolated from the food samples.

These include; Staphylococcus spp, Salmonella spp, Bacillus spp, Escherichia coli, Shigella spp and Pseudomonas spp. The presence of these enteric pathogens in the jollof rice and white rice suggests that these food vended in the main campus were not prepared under adequate sanitary and personal hygiene.


Title Page



Dedication                                                                                                  Acknowledgement

Table of Contents



1.0     Introduction

1.1     Aim

1.2     Objectives

1.3     Justification of the Study


2.0     Literature Review

2.1     History of the Existence of Oryza sativa (Rice)

2.2     How it came to Africa and Nigeria

2.3     Methods of Cultivation of Rice

2.3.1  Upland Rice

2.3.2  Fadama Rice

2.4     Diets/Food Varieties Produced from Rice

2.5     Type of Rice

2.6     Causes of Food Contamination

2.6.1  Bacterial Food Poisoning

2.6.2  Chemical Food Poisoning

2.6.3  Vegetable Food Poisoning

2.7     Bacterial Pathogens Implication in Food

2.7.1  Bacillus cereus

2.8     Salmonella typhi

2.9     Shigella dysenteriae

2.10   Staphylococcus aureus

2.11   Microorganism in Ready to Eat Rice

2.12   Nutritional Value of Rice and Practices that Enhances its



3.0     Materials and Method

3.1     Sample Collection

3.2     Sample Preparation

3.3     Preparation of Media

3.4     Serial Dilution

3.5     Total Viable Count

3.6     Identification of Isolates

3.7     Gram Staining

3.8     Coagulase Tests

3.9     Catalase Test

3.10   Motility Test

3.11   Indole Test


4.0     Result


5.1     Discussion

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Suggestions




          1.0    Introduction

Rice (Oryza sativa) is a grain of a monocotyledon plant and the most important staple food for a large part of the world human population, especially in Africa, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Latin America and the West Indies (Boyce et al 1996). Rice is the grain with the second highest world production of about 640 million tons, after maize (Corn).

Since a large portion of maize crops are grown at about 785 million tons for purposes different from human consumption, rice is probably the most important grain with regards to human nutrition and caloric intake, providing more than one fifth of the total calories consumed worldwide by human (Boyce et al 1996).

In Africa, rice has been used to improve nutrition quality, boost food security foster rural development and support sustainable land care (Chomvarin et al, 2006). Rice is basically grown as an annual plant, and its cultivation is well-suited to countries and regions with low labour cost and high rainfall, rice cultivation is very labour intensive and requires plenty of water.

Ready-to-eat (RTE) food refers to foods that do not require further significant preparation other than reheating or completion of a cooking process FEHD, 2001; (FSAL, 2001). The microbiological quality of ready-to-eat rice is said to be influenced by a number of factors such as cusine type, rice type, cooking, serving methods and in management/food handling (FEHD, 1995). De Bess et al (2009) reported that 32% of food handlers in ready-to-eat centers in Washington had no knowledge of food safety practice and of prevention of food borne diseases.

This may result in the transmission of food borne pathogens to the people consuming such food. Nicholas, et al, (1999), demonstrated that the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat rice from some eateries is low compared to some others. Due to the number of outbreaks of food poisoning from ready-to-eat food centers, it has been suggested that laws should be enacted on the establishment of ready-to-eat centers, and that the staff of such centers should be trained on proper hygienic procedure as well as the transmission of food borne diseases especially in developing countries.

In Nigeria, there is little or no knowledge of food borne diseases and their transmission among food handlers. Working in ready-to-eat food centers, and no rules are provided for the establishment of ready-to-eat centers. Most proprietors of ready-to-eat food centers are not duly licensed, and their staff properly selected. Hence, there is no need to examine the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat rice from food centers to reduce the risk of food poisoning.

An adequate supply of staff and whole some food is essential to the health and well being of human,(WHO 1979). However, diseases spread through food are common and persistent problems that result in appreciable morbidity and occasionally in death across the globe, (WHO, 2004).

The main diseases which are caused by contaminated foods are typhoid, cholera, hepatitis A, food poisoning and dysentery ( Maizun and Nyi, 2002). According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2004), the global incidence of food-borne diseases is difficult to estimate, but it has been reported that in 2008 alone, 1.8 million people died from diarrheal diseases.

A great proportion of these cases can be attributed to contamination of food and drinking water (Maizun and Nyi, 2002). In developing countries, up to an estimated 70% of cases of diarrheal disease are associated with the consumption of contaminated foods (WHO, 1979, 2008).

Approximately 10 to 20% of food-borne disease outbreaks are due to contamination by the food handler. Investigation of out breaks of food-borne disease throughout the world shows that, in nearly all instance they are caused by the failure to observe satisfactory standards in the preparation, processing, cooking, storing or retaining of food( Maizun and Nyi, 2002).

All food caterers have a responsibility of ensuring that customers are provided with safe food. Nevertheless many outbreak of food poisoning are reported each year. The cause is often related to poor hygiene practice and lack of awareness of the important issues in preventing food borne diseases by the food handlers (Charles, 1988, Maritha, et al., 2007).

Safe food is a basic human right despite many foods are frequently contaminated with natural occurring pathogenic microorganisms, such pathogens cannot be detected Organoleptically (seen, smelled or tasted), but can cause disease of varying. Severity, including death, especially if the way they are conserved during exposure for sales provides condition for those microorganisms to grow and reach considerable levels of contamination. Thus, food safety issues are of major importance to World Health Organization (WHO 2000).

The global incidence of food borne illness is difficult to estimate but it has been reported that in 2000 alone, 2,1 million people died from diarrheal diseases. A great proportion of these cases can be attributed to contamination of food and drinking water (WHO, 2000). Illness resulting from the consumption of contaminated food has become one of the most wide spread public health problems in contemporary society (Notermans et al 1995).

In Nigeria, as in many developing countries, major sources of ready-to-eat food are the eateries. Most people who use these food services are more interested in its convenience than the question of microbiological quality and hygiene. The microbiological quality of food indicates the amount of microbial contaminants it has.

A high level of contamination indicates low quality of food storage and its handling and more likely to transmit infection and the reverse is true (Oranusi and Braide, 2012). Thus, concern has been raised by the Food and Agricultural Organization ( FAO), and others about these foods serving as a potential source of food poisoning outbreaks (Chakravarty and Canet, 2002), it has been reported that RTE take-away foods accounts for a large volume of sales of the food service volume outputs( Powers and Barrow, 1999).

Food borne disease outbreaks linked with RTE foods have been associated with various food borne pathogens (Gilbrett, et al., 2005; Gibbons., et al 2006). The initial microbiological load on ready-to-eat food ingredients is important, however, factors such as handling, processing, storage and display may influence the microbiological load of RTE foods at the point of sale (Beuchat and Ryu; 1997: Angelidis et al., 2006).

There are many reasons why people eat away from home. These among others include absence from home while travelling, studying, while at work or need for a change in terms of food type or location and such, many people resort to buying food which may be poorly processed. This situation however, has resulted to the transfer of food sanitary measures and proper food handling from individuals and families to the food vendors who rarely enforce such practices (Musa and Akande, 2002).

In Nigeria, there has been an increase in the consumption of RTE foods over the last few years because they are relatively cheap, easily accessible provide divers/variable food source, employment and with a potential for improving food security and natural status and general social security (Draper, 1996).

Most people are very much interested in satisfying their hunger and the convenient of ready-to-eat foods rather than microbiological quality and hygiene. The fact that ready-to-eat food is an indispensible part of urban and rural diets, it has it’s own associated health problems, since it does not require any further processing before consumption.

According to WHO (1989), food handling personnel play a very important role in ensuring food safety through-out the chain of food processing, storage and preparation. Although a lot of work has been done on the safety of street foods in most developing countries not much has been done with regards to the cooked rice sold in local eateries within the main campus of Kaduna polytechnic.

Food safety is the assurance that food will not cause harm to the consumer when it is prepared and or eaten according to its intended use. Millions of people fall ill and many suffer from serious disorders, long-term complication or death as a result of eating unsafe food (WHO , 2001).

1.1     Aim

The aim of this project work is to study the bacterial contamination of jollof and white rice sold in local eateries within Kaduna polytechnic main campus.

1.2     Objectives

The specific objectives of the project work are to

1.Isolate and identify bacterial species associated with jollof and white rice sold in eateries in Kaduna polytechnic.

2.Determine the bacterial load of each of the cooked rice varieties.

3.Suggest possible ways of minimizing the level of microbial contamination of this food.


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