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Heavy Metals Analysis Of Instant Noodles Sold In Kaduna Metropolis (Project Download)

Download complete project materials   on Heavy Metals Analysis Of Instant Noodles Sold In Kaduna Metropolis (Project Download)  from chapter one to five with references

 

ABSTRACT

In the context of current global challenges in food safety and security, the study was conducted to assess heavy metal concentrations (Lead [Pb], Chromium [Cr], Copper [Cu] and Nickel [Ni] in some commercial brands of Nigerian noodles by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). The magnitude of heavy metals as lead (0.52-0.716 mg/kg), chromium (0.283-0.389 mg/kg), copper (0.486-0.626 mg/kg), and nickel (0.006 -0.839 mg/kg) contamination were found in noodles samples but all the monitored metals were within the  WHO safe limits. Although heavy metals in noodles do not pose any immediate risk to human health so far, a yearly monitoring program for heavy metals in commercial brands of noodles is necessity.

CHAPTER ONE

         1.0     INTRODUCTION

In Nigeria, there exist different brands of instant noodles. Considering the increasing trend in the consumption of instant noodles both in the urban and rural areas of Nigeria and the world, there is need to constantly monitor the quality of the product that is being sold to the consumer to ensure that they are safe for consumption, thereby improving on the food security of the country.

Global consumption of noodles is second only to bread; it is a fast growing sector of the pasta industry. This is because instant noodles are convenient, easy to cook, low cost and nutritious (Chin, C.K et al.,2012). In Nigeria, the market for noodles has grown over the last couple of years. It is tasty, nutritious and easy to prepare within a short time as such it is consumed by a large number of people.

The subject of heavy metal is receiving increasing popularity in the food industry due to increasing incidents of contamination in agriculture and seafood sources. Apart from the threat from polluted environment, food is subjected to heavy metal contamination during  processing. The ingestion of food is an obvious means of exposure to metals, not only because many metals are natural components of food stuffs, but also environmental contamination and contamination during processing (Voegborlo et al., 1997).

Heavy metals are potential environmental contaminants with the capability of causing human health problems if present in excess in the food we eat. They are given special attention throughout the world due to their toxic effects even at very low concentrations. Several cases of human disease, disorders, malfunction and malformation of organs due to metal toxicity have been reported (Salama, and Radwan, 2005).

Studies on heavy metals are important from public point of view, where the attention has been drawn to the necessity of measuring the accumulation of heavy metals, particularly those metals which pose serious health hazards to human ( e.g Cd and Pb ). (Olayiwola et al., 2012).

Exposure of consumers to heavy metal and related health risks are usually expressed as percentage intake of Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PWTI), a reference value established by WHO (1992) and WHO (1995). According to this, the weekly intake of metals from all sources should not exceed 0.05 and 0.075 mg. kg -1 body weight for lead and cadmium respectively.

Cadmium and lead are among the most abundant heavy metals and are particularly toxic. Cadmium exposure may cause kidney damage and or skeletal damage.  Air borne lead can be deposited on soil, water and plants thus reaching human via the food chain. Lead is accumulated in the skeletons and cause renal tubular damage and may also give rise to kidney damage (WHO, 1995). International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified cadmium and lead as human carcinogen (IARC, 1993; Salama and Radwan, 2005).

In June 2015, it was reported in India, that food giant, Nestle had to withdraw Maggi instant noodles from sale across India after government tests found dangerously high levels of lead in some packets(   ).

It is in line with this assertion that this project is aimed at assessing the amount of heavy metals in commercial brands noodles sold in Kaduna in order to evaluate the possible risk of noodles consumption.

            1.1 Aims and Objective

The aim of this research work is to analyze the heavy metals content of commercially available noodles sold in Kaduna metropolis

         

           1.2     Objectives

  1. To collect sample of  instant noodles from popular Kaduna market
  2. To determine selected heavy metals content in all instant noodles samples obtained.

iii. To compare the heavy metals content with permissible WHO levels.

         1.3 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

There is a need for continuous quality assessment of food products in order to ensure enhanced food safety and security.  To the best of our knowledge, there is invariably little information in literature performed on quality assessment and detection of toxic heavy metals in commercial brands of Nigerian noodles. Hence, the study is essential to meet a void in research.

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