Thursday, 19 May 2016

Design Of Automatic Security Light Project


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
In the field of physical security, security lighting is often used as a preventive and corrective measure against intrusions or other criminal activity on a physical piece of property. Security lighting may be provided to aid in the detection of intruders, to deter intruders, or in some cases simply to increase the feeling of safety. Lighting is integral to crime prevention through environmental design.


Security lighting can be used in residential, commercial, industrial, institutional, and military settings. Some examples of security lighting include floodlights and low pressure sodium vapour lights. Most lights intended to be left on all night are high-intensity discharge lamps as these have good energy efficiency, thus reducing the cost of running a lamp for such long periods.

Security lighting may be subject to vandalism, possibly to reduce its effectiveness for a subsequent intrusion attempt. Thus security lights should either be mounted very high, or else protected by wire mesh or tough polycarbonate shields. Other lamps may be completely recessed from view and access, with the light directed out through a light pipe or reflected from a polished aluminium or stainless steel mirror. For similar reasons high security installations may provide a stand-by power supply and automatic switching units for their security lighting.

Modern security lights may be activated by sensors such as passive infrared sensors (PIRs), turning on only when a person (or other mammal) approaches. PIR activated lamps will usually be incandescent bulbs so that they can activate instantly,. PIR sensor activation can increase both the deterrent effect (since the intruder knows that he has been detected) and the detection effect (since a person will be attracted to the sudden increase in light). another good design is the implementation of an automatic switching system which uses photocells so that the lamps only turn on when it is dark.

1.2 Aim And Objective
Aside security considerations, modern technologies aim at  Automation, Power consumption and cost effectiveness. Automation is intended to reduce man power with the help of intelligent systems. Power saving is the main consideration forever as the source of the power (Thermal, Hydro etc.,) are getting diminished due to various reasons.  inline with these, this project aims at the design and development of an automatic security light which uses photocell to activate a lamp when its dark outside.

1.3 Scope Of Work
This project work covers the design and implementation of an autonomous circuit for the control of a security lamp. the deign uses a photo resistor to sense darkness and activate an electromechanical relay with perform the actual switching of the AC lamp. A 10A contact relay is used in the circuit thus the circuit is limited to switch lamps with filament current of below the rated 10A contact current. 

1.4 Project Motivation
the conventional security light requires the constant attention of the someone at home to turn it OFF and ON and this can be cumbersome.  to overcome this, This circuit is design to automatically turns ON a security light when it sensing darkness. it serves to reduce the stress of manually turning ON and OFF security lights in the home, and completely eliminate the need to leave the security light ON all through the day when there is no one at home. 

1.5 project outline
this report is outlined in the following format: chapter one covers the introduction to security lighting system, chapter two, the review of the related literatures, chapter three covers details of the circuit diagram which include the block diagram, circuit diagram, working principle, and circuit design analysis, chapter four contains the construction and testing, and finally, chapter five covers the recommendation, conclusion and references. 


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