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Design Of 10,000 Metric Tonnes Per Annum Of Oxygen Plant

Download complete project materials on Design Of 10,000 Metric Tonnes Per Annum Of Oxygen Plant from chapter one to five with reference

ABSTRACT

The main goal of this project is to design a plant for the production of 10,000 metric tonnes of oxygen production per annum from air. The design constraints specify that the PSA plant must be self-sufficient in its energy requirement and should include all the units involved from transesterification to the purification, collection and storage of the final product (oxygen).

Detail process design for the production plant was carried out. The contents include the material and energy balance using MATHCAD mathematical application package, equipment design, economic analysis and safety and control analysis.

Based on the economic analysis carried out, the plant shows the prospect of being very economically viable if government can give incentives in terms of subsidy and lifting of tax payment. With total capital investment of N 4,670,000,000, a profit of N2,913, 000,000, is realizable per annum with a return on investment of 57.52% and payback period of 2 years.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Approval page

Declaration

Dedication                                                                                                                              Acknowledgment

Abstract

Table of content

List of figures

List of table

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTROUDCTION

1.1 Problems Statement

1.2 Aim and Objective

1.3 Scope of Project

1.4 Justification

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Description of Technologies

2.1.1 Cryogenic Distillation for Industrial Gas Processes

2.1.2Types of Cryogenic Distillation for Industrial Gas Processes

2.2   Non Cryogenic Industrial Gas processes

2.2.1 Types of Oxygen Production by Adsorption

2.2.2 Membrane Technology

2.2.3.Types of Oxygen Production by Membrane Technology

2.2.3.1     Polymeric Membrane

2.2.3.2 Ion Transport Membrane (ITM)

2.2.4 By-product of Oxygen

2.2.5 Oxygen Production by Electrolysis

2.3   Properties of Oxygen

2.3.1 Physical Properties of Oxygen

2.3.2 Chemical Properties of Oxygen

2.3.3 Uses of Oxygen

2.3.4 Safety Consideration

2.3.5 Storage Systems

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Process Selection

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Process Technologies for the Production of Oxygen

3.2.1 Cryogenic Process Technology (Double Linde Process)

3.2.2 Non -cryogenic Process Technology (PSA)

3.2.3 Membrane Process Technology

3.2.4 Comparison of the three Processes

3.3. Selected Process

CHAPTER FOUR                                                                                                                           

4.0 Material Balance

4.1Summary of material balance accross each Units

4.1.1 Filter  ( FL-201)

4.1.2 Air Compressor (C-201)

4.1.3 Air Cooler (D-201)

4.1.4 Water Separator (W-201)

4.1.5 Adsorber (A-201)

4.1.6 Low Pressure Surge Drum (B-201)

4.1.7 Oxygen Compressor (C-202)

4.1.8 Oxygen Cooler (D-202)

4.1.9 High pressure oxygen storage tank(E-201)

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0  Energy balance

5.1  Summary of energy balance across each unit

5.1.1 Filter (FL-201)

5.1.2 Air compressor (C-201)

5.1.3 Air cooler (D-201)

5.1.4 Water separator (W-201)

5.1.5 Adsorber (A 201)

5.1.6 Low pressure surge tank (B-201)

5.1.7 Oxygen compressor (C-202)

5.1.8 Oxygen cooler (condenser) (D-202)

5.1.9 High pressure surge tank (E-201)

 CHAPTER SIX

6.0  Equipment specification

6.1  Equipment specification of adsorber

6.2  Equipment specification of storage tank (TK-01)

 CHAPTER SEVEN

7.0  Summary of the profitability analysis

CHAPTER EIGHT 

8.0  Safety, environmental acceptability and quality control

8.1  Safety

8.1.1 Hazards

8.1.2 Safety measures

8.1.3 Further safety measures

8.2  Environmental acceptability

8.2.1 Identification of possible pollutants

8.2.2 Treatment of possible pollutants

8.3  Waste management during manufacture

8.3.1 Thermal pollution control

8.4   Environmental consideration

8.4.1    Waste disposal and methods of handling its problem

8.4.2    General quality control measures

CHAPTER NINE

9.0       Process control and instrumentation

9.1       Instrumentation and control objectives

CHAPTER TEN

10.0     Plant location and site selection and plant layout

10.1     Plant location and site selection

10.2     Raw materials availability

10.3     Market location

10.4     Availability of suitable land

10.5     Transport

10.6     Availability of labours

10.7     Availability of utilities

10.8     Environmental impact and effluent disposal

10.9     Local community considerations

10.10   Climate

10.11   Political and strategic considerations

10.12   Taxation and legal restrictions

10.2     Plant layout

10.2.1  Economic considerations: operating costs

10.2.2  Process requirements

10.2.3  Convenience of operation

10.2.4  Convenience of maintenance

10.2.5  Health and safety considerations

10.2.6  Future plant expansion

10.2.7  Modular construction

10.2.8  Waste disposal requirements

CHAPTER ELEVEN

11.0     Start up and shutdown procedure

11.1     Start up procedures

11.2     Shutdown procedures

11.2.1  Emergency shutdown of plant

11.2.2  Start up after emergency stop down


CHAPTER TWELVE

12.0 Conclusion and recommendations

12.1 Conclusion

12.2 Recommendations

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background of the Study
An orifice is a simple piece of flat metal with an orifice bore, normally in the centre (ISO, 2003). The upstream edge of the bore usually is cut sharp with a beveled edge on the downstream side. The fabrication or construction work well with clean liquid and gases slurries or dirty fluid can erode the sharp leading edge and cause the flow measurement to drift. Differential pressure devices represents the largest segment of the flow metering, they are based upon the conservation of mass and energy as given by Bernoulli’s equation.

When a restriction is placed in a flow steam, the velocity of the fluid flowing through the restricted opening increases causing a corresponding decrease in static pressure. Other type of the metering devices are as follow; velocity meter, mass meters, volumetric meters and other various meters. Orifice can be bored at the top of the plate position to allow passage at the top of the plate position to allow passage of gases when measuring liquids or at the bottom to allow suspended solids to pass, half circles bores are often used with light slurries or dirty gases (Park, 1986).

Flow measurement differs from other measurement by the large number of viable technologies available, many flow measurement devices are guided by some basic selection which have earlier been established choice depends upon the purpose of the measurement, the value of the fluid being measured, its physical characteristics and installation constraints associated with the location of the meter.

Orifice meters are popular in the chemical processing industries (CPI) in gas flow applications and far liquid flow in pipes sizes of six (6) inches or larger because of the relatively consistent cost. Other meters like the venturi meter, nozzle meter and pitot tube are not as popular as the orifice meters and are not well pronounce in chemical industries because they are expensive.

Methods for calibration of flow measurement systems provide a level of accuracy acceptable for calibration with dilution (tracer) method, volumetric method and hydraulic model testing (Considine, 1985).

1.  Dilution (tracer) Method: injection of a solution at a known rate and concentration in the effluent steam to determine the flow (injection solutions can include Rhodamine WT or lithium chloride).

2. Volumetric Method: collection of effluent and weighing over a known time period or measurement of volume of effluent displaced over a known time period.

3.  Hydraulic Model Testing: constriction of a scale model of the flow measurement system and calibration or verification under laboratory conditions. The testing or verification of an orifice plate can be done on the basis of knowing the accuracy.

In compressible fluids, the gases, the fluid density does not remain constant through the constriction, it is also necessary to consider mass equality rather than volumetric flow equality through the constriction. For an incompressible fluid, the above factors for an orifice plate must remain constant through the constriction. Alternatively, British standards institute Bs 1042, part 1:1964, methods for the measurement of fluid flow in pipes, orifice plates, nozzles and venturi tubes, provides graph from which cd can be calculated.

Advantages of the orifice plates are its simplicity and the ability to select a proper calibration on the basis of the measurement of geometry. The long, straight pipe length requirement and the limited practical discharge range ratio of about one to three for a single orifice hole size are the disadvantages of the orifice plate. For the orifice meter, the flow rate Q for a liquid is given by

Where P1 – P2 is the pressure drop, P is the density, A1is the pipe cross sectional area,A2 is the orifice cross-sectional area and Cd is the discharge coefficient. The discharge coefficient Cd varies with the Reynolds number at the orifice and is calibrate with a single fluid such as water (Kallen, 1982).

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