Thursday, 19 May 2016

Design Of 10,000 Metric Tonnes Per Annum Of Oxygen Plant

The main goal of this project is to design a plant for the production of 10,000 metric tonnes of oxygen production per annum from air. The design constraints specify that the PSA plant must be self-sufficient in its energy requirement and should include all the units involved from transesterification to the purification, collection and storage of the final product (oxygen). 
Detail process design for the production plant was carried out. The contents include the material and energy balance using MATHCAD mathematical application package, equipment design, economic analysis and safety and control analysis.

Based on the economic analysis carried out, the plant shows the prospect of being very economically viable if government can give incentives in terms of subsidy and lifting of tax payment. With total capital investment of N 4,670,000,000, a profit of N2,913, 000,000, is realizable per annum with a return on investment of 57.52% and payback period of 2 years.
Title page                                                                                                                    
Approval page                                                                                                                        
Dedication                                                                                                                              Acknowledgment                                                                                                                    
Table of content                                                                                                                        
List of figures                                                                                                                          
List of table                                                                                                                               
1.0 INTROUDCTION                                    
1.1 Problems Statement                                                                                                    
1.2 Aim and Objective                                                                                                      
1.3 Scope of Project                                                                                                          
1.4 Justification                                                                                                                 

2.0 Literature Review                                                                                                
2.1 Description of Technologies                                                                                
2.1.1 Cryogenic Distillation for Industrial Gas Processes                                                                                                                                                      
2.1.2Types of Cryogenic Distillation for Industrial Gas Processes                                     
2.2   Non Cryogenic Industrial Gas processes                                                                         
2.2.1 Types of Oxygen Production      by Adsorption                                                             
2.2.2 Membrane Technology                                                                                               
2.2.3.Types of Oxygen Production by Membrane Technology                                                                                                                                    Polymeric Membrane                                                                                        Ion Transport Membrane (ITM)                                                                                      
2.2.4 By-product of Oxygen                                                                                        
2.2.5 Oxygen Production by Electrolysis                                                                                                           
2.3   Properties of Oxygen                                                                                                        
2.3.1 Physical Properties of Oxygen                                                                                        
2.3.2 Chemical Properties of Oxygen                                                                                      
2.3.3 Uses of Oxygen                                                                                                               
2.3.4 Safety Consideration                                                                                                        
2.3.5 Storage Systems                                                                                                              

CHAPTER THREE                                                                                              
3.0 Process Selection                                                                                                           
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Process Technologies for the Production of Oxygen                                                                            
3.2.1 Cryogenic Process Technology (Double Linde Process)                                                  
3.2.2 Non -cryogenic Process Technology (PSA)                                                                       
3.2.3 Membrane Process Technology                                                                                             
3.2.4 Comparison of the three Processes                                                                                      
3.3. Selected Process                                                                                                               

CHAPTER FOUR                                                                                                                           
4.0 Material Balance                                                                                                           
4.1Summary of material balance accross each Units                                                                  
4.1.1 Filter  ( FL-201)                                                                                                                   
4.1.2 Air Compressor (C-201)                                                                                                       
4.1.3 Air Cooler (D-201)                                                                                                            
4.1.4 Water Separator (W-201)                                                                                                   
4.1.5 Adsorber (A-201)                                                                                                               
4.1.6 Low Pressure Surge Drum (B-201)                                                                                   
4.1.7 Oxygen Compressor (C-202)                                                                                              
4.1.8 Oxygen Cooler (D-202)                                                                                                                 
4.1.9 High pressure oxygen storage tank(E-201)                                                                        


5.0  Energy balance                                                                                                            
5.1  Summary of energy balance across each unit                                                             
5.1.1 Filter (FL-201)                                                                                                        
5.1.2 Air compressor (C-201)                                                                                              
5.1.3 Air cooler (D-201)                                                                                                      
5.1.4 Water separator (W-201)                                                                                            
5.1.5 Adsorber (A 201)                                                                                                       
5.1.6 Low pressure surge tank (B-201)                                                                                       
5.1.7 Oxygen compressor (C-202)                                                                                      
5.1.8 Oxygen cooler (condenser) (D-202)                                                                           
5.1.9 High pressure surge tank (E-201)                                                                               

            CHAPTER SIX
6.0  Equipment specification                                                                                             
6.1  Equipment specification of adsorber                                                                          
6.2  Equipment specification of storage tank (TK-01)                                                      

            CHAPTER SEVEN
7.0  Summary of the profitability analysis                                                                         
            CHAPTER EIGHT 
8.0  Safety, environmental acceptability and quality control                                            
8.1  Safety                                                                                                                          
8.1.1 Hazards                                                                                                                       
8.1.2 Safety measures                                                                                                          
8.1.3 Further safety measures                                                                                            
8.2  Environmental acceptability                                                                                       
8.2.1 Identification of possible pollutants                                                                          
8.2.2 Treatment of possible pollutants                                                                                 
8.3  Waste management during manufacture                                                                    
8.3.1 Thermal pollution control                                                                                            
8.4   Environmental consideration                                                                                      
8.4.1    Waste disposal and methods of handling its problem                                                  
8.4.2    General quality control measures                                                                               

            CHAPTER NINE
9.0       Process control and instrumentation                                                                           
9.1       Instrumentation and control objectives                                                                      

            CHAPTER TEN
10.0     Plant location and site selection and plant layout                                                       
10.1     Plant location and site selection                                                                                  
10.2     Raw materials availability                                                                                           
10.3     Market location                                                                                                           
10.4     Availability of suitable land                                                                                        
10.5     Transport                                                                                                                       
10.6     Availability of labours                                                                                               
10.7     Availability of utilities                                                                                                

10.8     Environmental impact and effluent disposal                                                              
10.9     Local community considerations                                                                                    
10.10   Climate                                                                                                                  
10.11   Political and strategic considerations                                                                        
10.12   Taxation and legal restrictions                                                                                    
10.2     Plant layout                                                                                                                 
10.2.1  Economic considerations: operating costs                                                                  
10.2.2  Process requirements                                                                                                   
10.2.3  Convenience of operation                                                                                           
10.2.4  Convenience of maintenance                                                                                      
10.2.5  Health and safety considerations                                                                                
10.2.6  Future plant expansion                                                                                                
10.2.7  Modular construction                                                                                                  
10.2.8  Waste disposal requirements                                                                                       
             CHAPTER ELEVEN
11.0     Start up and shutdown procedure                                                                                    
11.1     Start up procedures                                                                                                    
11.2     Shutdown procedures                                                                                                 
11.2.1  Emergency shutdown of plant                                                                                    
11.2.2  Start up after emergency stop down                                                                          

            CHAPTER TWELVE
12.0 Conclusion and recommendations                                                                              
12.1 Conclusion                                                                                                                  
12.2 Recommendations                                                                                                      
            APPENDIX A                                                                                                                                   
A.0      Material balance calculation                                                                                                    
A.1      Balance across the filter (FL 201)                                                                                           
A.2      Balance across the compressor (C 201)                                                                                  
A.3      Balance around air cooler (D-201)                                                                                          
A.4      Balance across water separator (W 201)                                                                                 
A.5      Balance across the adsorber (A 201)                                                                                      
A.6      Balance across low pressure surge drum (B-201)                                                                   
A.7      Balance across oxygen compressor (C-201)                                                                           
A.8      Balance across oxygen cooler (D-202)                                                                                   
A.9      Balance across high pressure oxygen storage tank (E-201)          

1.1  Background of the Study
An orifice is a simple piece of flat metal with an orifice bore, normally in the centre (ISO, 2003). The upstream edge of the bore usually is cut sharp with a beveled edge on the downstream side. The fabrication or construction work well with clean liquid and gases slurries or dirty fluid can erode the sharp leading edge and cause the flow measurement to drift. Differential pressure devices represents the largest segment of the flow metering, they are based upon the conservation of mass and energy as given by Bernoulli’s equation.

When a restriction is placed in a flow steam, the velocity of the fluid flowing through the restricted opening increases causing a corresponding decrease in static pressure. Other type of the metering devices are as follow; velocity meter, mass meters, volumetric meters and other various meters. Orifice can be bored at the top of the plate position to allow passage at the top of the plate position to allow passage of gases when measuring liquids or at the bottom to allow suspended solids to pass, half circles bores are often used with light slurries or dirty gases (Park, 1986).

Flow measurement differs from other measurement by the large number of viable technologies available, many flow measurement devices are guided by some basic selection which have earlier been established choice depends upon the purpose of the measurement, the value of the fluid being measured, its physical characteristics and installation constraints associated with the location of the meter.

Orifice meters are popular in the chemical processing industries (CPI) in gas flow applications and far liquid flow in pipes sizes of six (6) inches or larger because of the relatively consistent cost. Other meters like the venturi meter, nozzle meter and pitot tube are not as popular as the orifice meters and are not well pronounce in chemical industries because they are expensive.

Methods for calibration of flow measurement systems provide a level of accuracy acceptable for calibration with dilution (tracer) method, volumetric method and hydraulic model testing (Considine, 1985).

Dilution (tracer) Method: injection of a solution at a known rate and concentration in the effluent steam to determine the flow (injection solutions can include Rhodamine WT or lithium chloride).

Volumetric Method: collection of effluent and weighing over a known time period or measurement of volume of effluent displaced over a known time period.

Hydraulic Model Testing: constriction of a scale model of the flow measurement system and calibration or verification under laboratory conditions. The testing or verification of an orifice plate can be done on the basis of knowing the accuracy.

In compressible fluids, the gases, the fluid density does not remain constant through the constriction, it is also necessary to consider mass equality rather than volumetric flow equality through the constriction. For an incompressible fluid, the above factors for an orifice plate must remain constant through the constriction. Alternatively, British standards institute Bs 1042, part 1:1964, methods for the measurement of fluid flow in pipes, orifice plates, nozzles and venturi tubes, provides graph from which cd can be calculated.

Advantages of the orifice plates are its simplicity and the ability to select a proper calibration on the basis of the measurement of geometry. The long, straight pipe length requirement and the limited practical discharge range ratio of about one to three for a single orifice hole size are the disadvantages of the orifice plate. For the orifice meter, the flow rate Q for a liquid is given by

Where P1 – P2 is the pressure drop, P is the density, A1is the pipe cross sectional area,A2 is the orifice cross-sectional area and Cd is the discharge coefficient. The discharge coefficient Cd varies with the Reynolds number at the orifice and is calibrate with a single fluid such as water (Kallen, 1982).               

  • 1.2 Aim and Objective
To construct an orifice plate at minimal cost and to propose commercial production of orifice plate for industrial flow measurement
  • 1.3 Scope of the Project:  
            The research project work covers the following:
Ø  Design
Ø  Construction and
Ø  Testing of an orifice plate      


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