Thursday, 19 May 2016

Construction Of Amplitude Modulated (Am) Radio Receiver


The project presents the construction and testing of a Radio Receiver using Amplitude Modulation ­AM. Components used for the construction of the AM radio receiver was combination of Inductors, Resistors, Variable Capacitors, LM386 integrated circuit IC, Diodes and Variable Resistors. The project was constructed and tested and the frequencies were found as; the Intermediate Frequency was 465 KHz, Bandwidth 594 KHz and Frequency Oscillation was 1059 KHz. The Frequency signal of the constructed AM Radio Receiver is very strong in the morning (before sunrise) and night, but there is distortion in the day time. 


Title page


Approval page
Table of content
List of figures  
Chapter One
1.0     Introduction
1.1     Radio Receiver
1.2     Amplitude Modulation (AM)
1.3     Aims and objectives
1.4     Project justification
1.5     Project limitation
1.6     Scope of the study

Chapter Two      
2.0     Literature Review
2.1     AM Radio Receiver
2.2     Review of some related works
2.3     Components review
2.3.1  Transistor
2.3.2  Resistor
2.3.3  Diode
2.3.4  Capacitor
2.4     Advent of semiconductors
2.5     Digital technologies
2.6     DSP technology
2.7     Limitation of AM broadcast
2.8     AM stereo
2.9     Broadcast frequency bands
2.10   Simplified analysis of standard AM
2.11   Spectrum
2.12   Modulation index
2.13 Modulation Methods
2.14 AM Demodulation or Detection Process

Chapter Three
3.0     Materials and methods
3.1     Materials used
3.2     Construction of AM radio receiver
3.2.1  Layout of AM radio receiver

Chapter Four     
4.0     Testing and result      
4.1     Testing of AM radio receiver
4.2     Result of AM radio receiver
4.2.1  Frequency transmission signal of AM radio receiver
4.3     Packaging of AM radio receiver
4.4     Principle of Operation of AM Radio Receiver
Chapter Five

5.0     Discussion, Recommendation and Conclusion
5.1     Discussion     
5.2     Recommendation
5.3     Conclusion
Appendix I
Appendix II


           CHAPTER ONE

          1.0  INTRODUCTION

Telecommunication is the exchange of information over significant distance by electronic means. A computer, single telecommunication circuit consists of two stations, each equipped with a transmitter and a receiver. The transmitter and the receiver at any station may be combined into a single device called transceiver. The medium of signal transmission can be electrical wire or cable (also known as copper) optical fiber or electromagnetic fields. (Stremler, 1996).   

           1.1     Radio Receiver

In communications, a radio receiver is an electronic device that receives radio waves and converts the information carried by them to a usable form with the help an antenna. The antenna intercepts radio waves (electromagnetic waves) and converts them to tiny alternating currents which are applied to the receiver, and the receiver extracts the desired information. The receiver uses electronic filters to separate the desired radio frequency signal from all the other unwanted signals picked up by the antenna, an electronic amplifier is used to increase the power of the signal for further processing, and finally recovers the desired information through demodulation (Bakashi., Godse, 2009).

            1.2     Amplitude Modulation (AM)

Amplitude Modulation (AM) is a modulation technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. In amplitude modulation, the amplitude (signal strength) of the carrier wave is varied in proportion to the waveform being transmitted. That waveform may, for instance, correspond to the sounds to be reproduced by a loudspeaker, or the light intensity of television pixels. This technique contrasts with frequency modulation, in which the frequency of the carrier signal is varied, and phase modulation, in which its phase is varied (John Bray, 2002).

           1.3 Aims and Objectives

The aim of this project is to construct a simple AM radio receiver with frequency band ranging from about 500 kHz to 1600 kHz.

The objectives to attain this aim are;

            i. To construct and package of radio receiver

          ii. To test the performance of the device (radio) so as to select the desired signal from a range of signals been transmitted.

         iii. To construct an AM radio receiver that built up the sense of receiving information that are been transmitted.

            1.4  Project Justification

The choice of this project or study was motivated by the advantages which the Amplitude Modulation AM radio over the FM. The advantages of AM radio are;

i.  To detect with simple equipment, even if the signal is not very strong.

ii. The other advantage is that it has a narrower bandwidth than FM, wider coverage compared with FM radio, and lower power consumption.
           iii. Develop cost effective and technical suitable equipments of the desired purpose

            1.5 Project Limitation

The major disadvantages of AM are that the signal is affected by electrical storms and other radio frequency interference. Also, radio transmitters can transmit sound waves of frequency up to 15 KHz, but most receivers are able to reproduce frequencies only up to 5 KHz or less. Wide band FM was invented to specifically overcome the interference disadvantage of AM radio.

            1.6 Scope of the Study

The scope of this project is to construct an AM radio receiver with frequency band ranging from about 500 KHz to 1600 KHz.


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