Sunday, 8 May 2016

Computerized Analysis Of Revenue And Expenditure Of Higher Institution In Nigeria

This research is basically concerned with the revenue and expenditure account of Kaduna Polytechnic. The study will also looks at the growth of public expenditure in its historical background and will make an overview of the existing system and develop a system on how revenue and expenditure can be effectively computerized by creating and managing a database of the revenue and expenditure. The study will also look at the strength and extent of relationship that might exist between revenue and expenditure, while estimating the total expenditure on the basic knowledge of total revenue.
Figure: 3.1  Use Case Diagram
Figure: 3.2 Class diagram
Figure: 3.3  Sequence diagram
Figure: 3.4  Login activity diagram
Figure: 3.5 Accountant registration activity diagram
Figure: 3.6 Generated revenue registration activity diagram
Figure: 3.7 Expenditure registration activity diagram
Figure: 3.8 Print report activity diagram
Figure: 3.9 Login page 
Figure: 3.10 Main menu
Figure: 3.11 Accountant registration detail
Figure: 3.13 Revenue Generated detail 
Figure: 3.14 Monthly expenditure detail
Figure: 4.1 Welcome screen
Figure: 4.2  Login screen
Figure: 4.3  Main menu screen
Figure: 4.4  Accountant registration screen
Figure: 4.5  Generated revenue screen
Figure: 4.6  Monthly expenditure regeneration screen
Figure: 4.7  Annual evaluation screen
Figure: 4.8  Account information report
Figure: 4.9 Revenue information report
Figure: 4.10 Expenditure information report
Figure: 4.11 Annual evaluation information report

Table: 3.1  Login
Table: 3.2  Revenue generation
Table: 3.3 Accountant registration
Table: 3.4 Monthly expenditure 
Table: 3.5 Annual evaluation 

            1.0  Preamble
The development of any institution largely depends on the financial resources at its disposal and the prudent utilization of such available resources on meaningful development projects that will enhances the realization of development goals.

Any institution which lacks strong internal revenue base will no doubt find it difficult to develop even where fund is available, care must be taken in expending such fund. Therefore, there is the need to carefully plan development strategies towards achieving set development objectives. 

The planned development strategies must be strictly adhered to and the financial resources available for implementing them should be properly managed of any meaningful development is to be achieved.
However, no matter how good development strategies are, they cannot be effective without adequate and realistic statistics to back them. Even where fund is available for development purpose, meaningful development can only be achieved if there is available sources of information that will aid formulating development strategies.

It is in view of the above that we decide to choose the project topic “Computerized Analysis of Revenue and Expenditure of Kaduna Polytechnic”. 

The project will look at the sources of revenue generation available to Kaduna Polytechnic and it will also aid in finding the present and past performance of Kaduna polytechnic revenue and expenditure with the hope of estimating future expenditure with knowledge of total revenue; finally trend of revenue and expenditure of the institute will also be analyzed.

            1.1       Historical Background of Kaduna Polytechnic
Kaduna Polytechnic has grown from a humble beginning in 1956 when it started as “Kaduna Technical Institute” to what is today the largest polytechnic in Africa south of the Sahara in terms of staff, students’ population and physical infrastructure. It is the second oldest technological institution in Nigeria, the oldest being Yaba college of technology which was established in 1948. Kaduna Polytechnic is also the second largest tertiary institution in Nigeria after Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

The conception of a technical institution in northern Nigeria was muted as far back as 1951, five years later, and this idea resulted in the establishment of Kaduna technical Institute in 1956. This was a result of the acceptance by the British government of the recommendation of the higher education commission that suggested the upgrading of Yaba college of technology to an institute in Kaduna and Enugu. In 1956, the Kaduna Technical Institute took off with the following mandate.

a.       It operates in fields other than those of the Nigerian college of arts, science and technology.
b.      To train Engineering Assistants (Technicians).
c.    To provide “feeders” for the Nigerian college of Arts, Science and Technology as much as possible but not exclusively.
d.      To provide courses leading to a standard of the ordinary national diploma certificate in the United Kingdom.
            1.2       Statement of Problem  
It is observed that many institutions have numerous abandoned projects which were facilitated by poor financial resources to handles. They are always more projects to execute them the resources to execute than. The research want to find out if this is due to the negligence on the part of Kaduna polytechnic or policy makers, or due to the poor internal revenue sources of the institution or whether it is partly due to the fact that the little funds available are not properly utilized revenue sources of the institution.

            1.3       Aims and Objectives            
The sole aim of this project is to carry out research work on how the revenue and expenditure can be effectively computerized by creating and managing the database of the revenue generated. The researchers also examine some problems that cause set back to revenue and expenditure generation in order to reduce the processing steps and increase retrieval of data/information.
Also increase the accuracy of manipulation of revenue data thereby reducing/eliminating fraud in Kaduna Polytechnic. The research work also aims at developing a computer program that will ease the usage of revenue and expenditure information kept in the Kaduna Polytechnic by fast retrieval and accurate storage of the records.

            1.4       Significance of the Study
The main significance of this project is to design a computer program using some statistical tool to measure:
1.      The strength and extent of relationship that might exist between revenue and expenditure.
2.      To estimate the total expenditure on the basic of knowledge to total revenue.
3.    The trend of revenue and expenditure with the hope of finding a means through which future revenue and expenditure could be determined using the respective trend equation.
            1.5       Scope and Delimitation
This research is based on computerized analysis of revenue and expenditure of Kaduna Polytechnic. The data analysis is based on the revenue and expenditure carried out from 1992-2005. The research was carried out as the case study in order to make a comparison between the manual and computerized system. The trends of revenue and expenditure will analyzed. 

           1.6       Definition of Terms
1.      Budget: it is the main financial plans for the formulation and was of the state wide fund of money resources. It is also an instrument for achieving control of the economy during the next year.
2.      Recurrent Revenue: this refers to the money receive by government on yearly basis by means of taxes, fines, rest on government properties especially government levies etc. this refers to income derive from government loan and grants.
3.      Recurrent Expenditure: this refers to the amount spend for the current consumption of goods and services by government agencies e.g. salaries and allowances, replacement office equipments etc.
4.      Capital Expenditure: refers to expenditure on development project that are more of long term in nature and that are expected to make significant contribution of the socio-economic condition of our teeming population e.g. erection of new structures scholarship schemes, teacher training progrrammes etc.
5.      Capital Receipt: refers to income derive from governments loan and grants.


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