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A Review And The Consequences Of Mother’s Improper Nutrition On The Unborn Child

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Mothers nutritional status before and during pregnancy is a powerful indicator to the quality of infants delivered. It determines the future of child’s health and nutritional status. Infant delivered with low birth weight as a result of mothers under nutrition may have all organs poorly formed which cannot cope with the future challenges. Frequent sickness that could lead to poor school attendance, performance and achievement of children can easily be linked to poor maternal malnutrition. Similarly, there are evidences that over feeding by mothers breeds children with potentials of becoming overweight and obsess with their attendance consequences. The overall effects is weak communities that affect national development. Education, supplementations, enrichment and dietary diversification can improve the poor situation.





Approval page




Table of contents


1.0      Introduction

1.1      Aim and objectives


2.0      Literature review

2.1      Preconception nutrition

2.2      Nutrition in pregnancy

2.3      Nutritional requirement in pregnancy

2.3.1  Calories and protein requirement

2.4      Minerals and vitamins requirement

2.4.1  Calcium

2.4.2  Iron

2.4.3  Iron requirement in pregnancy

2.4.4  Iodine

2.4.5  Zinc

2.4.6  Other minerals

2.4.7  Vitamins

2.4.8  Folic acid (folate)

2.4.9  Vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia

2.5.0  Vitamin d (cholecalciferol)

2.5.1  Vitamin e (tocopherol)

2.5.2  Vitamin e (tocopherol)

2.5.3  Vitamin a (retinal)

2.5.4  Vitamin k (phylloquinone)

2.5.5  Vitamin c (ascorbic acid)

2.5.6  Water (fluid)

2.5.7 Fat requirement

2.6  Physiological anaemia of pregnancy

2.6.1 Cause of poor nutrition during pregnancy cultural

beliefs, social practical and behavior change

2.8  Effect of malnutrition on the pregnancy outcome

2.9  Factors that may contribute to poor outcome pregnancy

2.10Delivery children that are susceptible to malnutrition


3.0 Causes of low birth weight

3.2  Morbidity and mortality as consequences of low birth

weight in neonates and infants

3.3 Long-term consequences of low birth weight the footal

origins of disease hypothesis

3.4  Delivery children that susceptible to obese (malnutrition)

3.4.1  Definition of obesity

3.4.2  Rate of occurrence

3.5 General strategy to prevent poor pregnancy outcome

3.6 Nutrition strategy to prevent poor pregnancy outcome.

3.7 Dietary approach


4.0 Conclusion, recommendation and suggestion

4.1 Conclusion

4.2 Recommendation and suggestion



1.0 INTRODUCTION Nutrition is the science that interprets the relationship of food to the functioning of living organisms. It includes the intake of food, absorption, metabolism and removal of waste. It also entails revealing the benefit of good nourishment such as maintenance, growth and reproduction. For effective out come, in take has to be at optimal for individuals and any deviation can to malnutrition (JELLIFE 1982)


In adequate food in take pre and during pregnancy have been linked with poor pregnancy out come with its attendance consequences. Such children are delivered either undernourished or with every tendency/potentials of becoming over nourished in future, thus limiting their capability and attaining full potentials.


Infants born with low birthweight (less than 2500grams) suffers from extremely high rates of morbidity and mortality from infections disease, and are underweight, stunted or wasted beginning in the neonatal period through childhood.


Again ACC/SCM (1999) reveals that infants weighting between 2000-2499 grams at birth are 4 times more likely to die during their first 28 days of life than infant weighing 2500-2999 grams, and ten times more likely to die than those weighing 3000-3499 gram.

Low birth weight is associated with impaired immune function, poor cognitive development, and high risk of developing acute diarrhea or pneumonia. In the other hand over nourished mothers breads overweight babies who eventually becomes overweight adults. Overweight and obesity among the poor, severely compromise public health gains in developing countries include Nigeria.

The conditions increases the risk of developing chronic diseases notably, heart disease, diabetes and some cancers. Diet related chronic diseases are already a burden in many communities and the nation entirely. Malnutrition during pregnancy in whatever from (under nutrition/over nutrition) is a gate away to breeding double/weighing down countries human resources and nations ability to growth economically, socially and politically.

Many reasons have been adduced to malnutrition. They includes poverty, lack of access to health and nutrition facilities. Other factors include mothers lifestyle that includes smoking, drugs, and alcoholism.

Studies have shown that nutritional education, capacity building, nutrients supplementation, complementation and diversification can be use to overcome the situation. This will help improve the life of the new born, prepares him/her to face future challenges and national development.


  1. To identify the effect of inappropriate food intake in both the mother and infants delivered.
  2. To identify current approaches in reducing the incidence of under weight and over weights                deliveries.

iii. To determine the cause of obesity and weight loss during pregnancy.



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